标签 国家公园 下的文章

克卢恩国家公园保护区的山脉和冰川,加拿大育空地区 Saint Elias Mountains and Kaskawulsh Glacier in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon, Canada (© Design Pics Inc/Alamy)

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克卢恩国家公园保护区的山脉冰川加拿大育空地区 Saint Elias Mountains and Kaskawulsh Glacier in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon, Canada (© Design Pics Inc/Alamy)

Kluane National Park

What looks here like an ice road for 50-foot-tall truckers is really Kaskawulsh Glacier in Canada's Kluane National Park. This corner of the Yukon is home to the largest ice field on Earth outside of the poles, with the slow, steady flow of more than 2,000 glaciers continually carving these vast canyons amid the peaks.

Speaking of peaks, glance up and you'll see the Yukon is also paradise for mountain lovers. And Kluane is its pinnacle, literally: Located within the park is Mount Logan, the highest mountain in Canada (and second-highest on the continent after Alaska's Denali).

库隆尼国家公园

对于50英尺高的卡车司机来说,这里看起来像是一条冰路,实际上是加拿大克鲁恩国家公园中的卡斯卡沃尔什冰川。育空地区的这个角落是地球上除极地以外最大的冰原的所在地,2000多条缓慢而稳定的冰川不断地在峰之间雕刻着这些巨大的峡谷

说到山峰,抬头一看,你会发现育空地区也是高山爱好者的天堂。Kluane是它的巅峰,字面意思是:位于公园内的是加拿大最高的山脉洛根山(仅次于阿拉斯加的德纳利山,是该大陆第二高的山)。

蓝山国家公园里的萤火虫,澳大利亚 Glowworms in Blue Mountains National Park, Australia (© Leelakajonkij/Getty Images)

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国家公园里的萤火虫澳大利亚 Glowworms in Blue Mountains National Park, Australia (© Leelakajonkij/Getty Images)

Glowworm caves in Australia

Down under the land in the Land Down Under, cave explorers may find these subterranean spaces illuminated by an unlikely light source. Fungus gnat larvae—more affectionately known as glowworms—speckle the walls and ceilings of caverns here in Australia during the warm season from December to March. To humans they're hypnotizingly harmless and add a little otherworldly charm to the caves in such places as Blue Mountains National Park, as seen in our photo. But if you're a fly or mosquito, beware! Glowworms dangle tiny, sticky silk strands that ensnare winged insects flying toward what looks like a starry night sky, but is in fact the cave ceiling, covered in glowworms, patiently waiting to reel in a deceived fly.

澳大利亚的萤火虫洞穴

在地下,穴探险家可能会发现这些地下空间被一种不太可能的源照亮。在12月至3月的温暖季节,真菌小昆虫幼虫(更亲切地称为萤火虫)在澳大利亚洞穴的墙壁和天板上散布斑点。在我们的照片中可以看到,对人类来说,它们无害得令人着迷,为蓝山国家公园等地的洞穴增添了一点超凡脱俗的魅力。但如果你是一只苍蝇或蚊子,小心!萤火虫悬挂着细小的、粘乎乎的丝线,诱捕着飞向星空的有翼昆虫,但事实上是洞穴的天花板,上面覆盖着萤火虫,耐心地等待着一只受骗的苍蝇。

有着丰富石化木材的石化林国家公园,美国亚利桑那州 Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona (© Ian Shive/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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有着丰富石化木材的石化林国家公园美国亚利桑那州 Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona (© Ian Shive/Tandem Stills + Motion)

Petrified Forest National Park

The burliest lumberjack with the best-oiled chainsaw couldn't slice the massive 'timbers' found in Petrified Forest National Park. So why are these giant stone logs segmented in such symmetrical stumps?

Each of these smooth splits occurred in an instant as the brittle quartz cracked under geologic pressure. But each of those instants was eons in the making. First, 225 million years ago, the trees were buried by torrents of river silt. Then mineral deposits slowly seeped into the trees and replaced the decaying wood. Much later, around 60 million years ago, the entire Colorado Plateau began shifting, generating crushing forces that finally divided the petrified logs.

The fossilized trees, surrounding land, and the many plants and animals that live here have enjoyed protection since December 8, 1906, when President Theodore Roosevelt created Petrified Forest National Monument. It was designated as a national park in 1962, lending still greater protection.

石化森林国家公园

最结实的伐木工人和最好的油锯无法切割石化森林国家公园中发现的巨大“木材”。那么,为什么这些巨石原木被分割成如此对称桩呢?

当脆性石英在地质压力下破裂时,每一个滑的裂缝都会在瞬间发生。但是,每一个瞬间都在酝酿中。首先,2.25亿年前,这些树木被河流淤泥的洪流所掩埋。然后,矿物质慢慢渗入树木,取代了腐烂的木材。很久以后,大约6000万年前,整个科罗拉多高原开始移动,产生了最终分裂石化原木的压碎力。

自1906年12月8日西奥多·罗斯福总统创建石化森林国家纪念碑以来,这里的树木化石、周围的土地和许多动植物一直受到保护。1962年,它被指定为国家公园,提供了更大的保护。

史诺多尼亚国家公园的Capel Curig,英国威尔士 Capel Curig in Snowdonia National Park, Wales, United Kingdom (© Sebastian Wasek/Sime/eStock Photo)

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史诺多尼亚国家公园的Capel Curig,英国威尔士 Capel Curig in Snowdonia National Park, Wales, United Kingdom (© Sebastian Wasek/Sime/eStock Photo)

A Welsh wonder turns 70

Here on the west coast of Great Britain, we're enjoying views of the windswept uplands and jagged peaks that surround the small village of Capel Curig in the heart of Snowdonia National Park. Renowned for its rugged and mountainous landscape, Snowdonia is the largest national park in Wales and home to over 26,000 people—and even more sheep—the wooly farm animals outnumber people three to one in Wales. About 60% of the park's population speak Welsh, one of Europe's oldest languages, and today they will be wishing this spectacular setting a 'pen-blwydd hapus' (happy birthday) as Snowdonia celebrates its 70th anniversary.

Established on October 18, 1951 as the first national park in Wales, Snowdonia boasts nine mountain ranges that cover just over half the park's 823 square miles. Its most popular peak is Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa in the local Welsh tongue), the tallest mountain in Wales and England, which you can see in the background of our photo. At 3,560 feet, Snowdon is one of 15 mountains within the park that top 3,000 feet, and they're clustered close enough together to make it possible to reach all 15 summits within 24 hours, a challenge known as the Welsh 3000s.

威尔士奇迹70岁

在英国西海岸,我们可以欣赏到斯诺多尼亚国家公园中心的卡佩尔·库里小村庄周围被风吹过的高地和参差不齐的峰。斯诺登尼亚以其崎岖多山的景观而闻名,是威尔士最大的国家公园,居住着26000多人,甚至更多的绵羊。在威尔士,羊毛农场动物的数量比人多三倍。大约60%的公园人口讲威尔士语,威尔士语是欧洲最古老的语言之一。今天,在斯诺多尼亚庆祝其70周年之际,他们将祝愿这一壮观的场景成为“彭·布吕德·哈布斯”(生日快乐)。

斯诺登尼亚于1951年10月18日建立,是威尔士的第一个国家公园,拥有九座山脉,占地823平方英里,略超过公园面积的一半。它最受欢迎的山峰是斯诺登(当地威尔士语中的Yr Wyddfa),这是威尔士和英格兰最高的山峰,你可以在我们的照片背景中看到。斯诺登海拔3560英尺,是公园内海拔3000英尺的15座山峰之一,它们聚集在一起,足以在24小时内到达所有15座山峰,这一挑战被称为威尔士3000山脉。

拉莫里斯国家公园中的Wapizagonke湖区,加拿大魁北克 The Wapizagonke Lake in La Mauricie National Park, Quebec, Canada (© Instants/Getty Images)

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拉莫里斯国家公园中的Wapizagonke湖区加拿大魁北克 The Wapizagonke Lake in La Mauricie National Park, Quebec, Canada (© Instants/Getty Images)

Vibrant colours of Fall

This majestic view of the Wapizagonke Lake encapsulates the spirit of autumn through the vibrant display of colours. Located between Québec City and Montréal, La Mauricie National Park is a site for all types of nature lovers. The park offers activities such as hiking, kayaking, paddling, bird watching, ice climbing and even star gazing. With more than 150 lakes and home to one of the oldest mountain ranges – the Laurentian Mountains - La Mauricie National Park is a destination filled with spectacular vistas all-year-round.

秋天的鲜艳色彩

瓦皮扎贡克的壮丽景色通过生动的色彩展示,体现了天的精神。La Mauricie国家公园位于魁北克市和蒙特勒尔之间,是各类自然爱好者的聚集地。公园里有徒步旅行、皮划艇、划、观鸟、攀冰,甚至还有观星等活动。拉莫里西国家公园拥有150多个湖泊,是最古老的山脉之一——劳伦斯脉的所在地,是一个终年景色壮观的目的地。

约克郡谷地国家公园里的山丘,英格兰 Howgill Fells in the Yorkshire Dales National Park, England (© davidnmoorhouse/iStock/Getty Images Plus)

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约克郡谷地国家公园里的山丘英格兰 Howgill Fells in the Yorkshire Dales National Park, England (© davidnmoorhouse/iStock/Getty Images Plus)

Between the Lakes and the Dales

Nestled between the Yorkshire Dales and the Lake District, the smooth rounded shapes and steep gills (ravines) of the Howgill Fells capture an eye-catching pattern of light and shade. These ancient hills, formed more than 400 million years ago, have remained a largely settlement-free zone, uncrossed by roads and untouched by development. Trees are scarce on the high ground, where sheep and wild ponies graze and small streams tumble down dark, narrow gullies and the panoramic views from the fells are a sight worth climbing for. The highest point is the top of The Calf, at 2,218ft (676m), from where hikers can enjoy a 20-mile skyline of the Lakeland peaks, the Yorkshire Three Peaks and the nearer Howgill peaks.

Part of the range sits within Yorkshire Dales National Park, although they are actually in the county of Cumbria. The Howgill Fells’ striking appearance was perhaps best summed up by the famed fell walker and guide book author A. Wainwright as “sleek and smooth, looking from a distance like velvet curtains in sunlight, like silken drapes at sunset … a remarkable concentration of summits often likened to a huddle of squatting elephants”.

与谷之间

坐落在约克郡山谷湖区之间的豪吉尔森林,平滑的圆形和陡峭的鳃(沟壑)捕捉到了引人注目的明暗模式。这些形成于4亿多年前的古老丘一直是一个基本上没有定居点的区域,没有道路交叉,也没有开发。高地木稀少,绵羊和野马在那里吃草,小溪从黑暗狭窄的沟壑中滚滚而下,从山林中俯瞰全景是一个值得攀登的景观。最高点是小牛的顶部,海拔2218英尺(676米),徒步旅行者可以在这里欣赏20英里的湖畔山峰、约克郡三峰和更近的豪吉尔峰的天际线。

部分山脉位于约克郡山谷国家公园内,尽管它们实际上位于坎布里亚县。豪吉尔·费尔斯引人注目的外表也许是著名的费尔沃克和导游作者A的最佳概括。温赖特被称为“滑光滑,从远处看,就像阳光下的天鹅绒窗帘,像日落时的丝绸窗帘……山峰的显著集中常常被比作一群蹲着的大象”。

死亡谷国家公园里的优比喜比火山口,加利福尼亚州 Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley National Park, California (© Albert Knapp/Alamy)

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死亡谷国家公园里的优比喜比火山口加利福尼亚州 Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley National Park, California (© Albert Knapp/Alamy)

When Death Valley blew its top

Deep below Death Valley's charred surface, blazing hot magma once gushed up through a geologic fault until it hit groundwater. The magma quickly turned the water to steam, and like a defective subterranean pressure cooker, the Earth's crust blew its top in a ferocious explosion. The hydrovolcanic eruption sent up a mushroom cloud of steam and spewed burnt volcanic cinders for miles. It also left the giant crater seen in this photo and 12 smaller ones spread across the surface.

The Ubehebe Crater (pronounced you-bee-HEE-bee) is a half-mile across and more than 700 feet deep. Geologically speaking, Ubehebe and the other craters here are quite young. A 2016 study concluded that the craters were all formed in a relatively brief series of explosions—a period of days or weeks—about 2,100 years ago. Another eruption could happen, but visitors need not worry about the ground below their feet—seismometers in the region will alert geologists in advance of any future volcanic unrest. A trail around the rim of the crater offers views of the colorful layers of stone along the walls. Adventurous hikers can descend to the bottom, but it's a long slog back out again, especially on a sweltering summer day.

当死亡谷爆发时

在死亡谷烧焦的地表深处,炽热的岩浆曾经通过地质断层喷涌而出,直到触及地下水。岩浆很快将水变成蒸汽,就像一个有缺陷的地下压力锅,地壳在猛烈的爆炸中炸开了顶部。水火山喷发喷出蘑菇状的蒸汽云,喷出燃烧的火灰数英里。它还留下了这张照片中看到的巨大陨石坑,12个较小的陨石坑散布在地表。

Ubehebe火山口(发音为you bee HEE bee)宽半英里,深700多英尺。从地质学的角度来说,乌贝赫比和这里的其他陨石坑都很年轻。2016年的一项研究得出结论,这些陨石坑都是在相对短暂的一系列爆炸中形成的——大约2100年前的几天或几周时间。另一次火山喷发可能会发生,但游客不必担心脚下的地面。该地区的地震仪将在未来的火山动荡之前提醒地质学家。沿着火山口边缘的小径可以看到沿着墙壁的彩色石层。喜欢冒险的徒步旅行者可以爬到水底,但要想再次爬出来还需要很长时间,尤其是在炎热的夏天。

圆顶礁国家公园的大教堂谷,犹他州 Mesas, Upper Cathedral Valley, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah (© Tim Fitzharris/Minden Pictures)

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圆顶礁国家公园的大教堂谷,犹他州 Mesas, Upper Cathedral Valley, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah (© Tim Fitzharris/Minden Pictures)

This 'reef' is nowhere near the sea…

…nor the US Capitol building it's named for. Utah's Capitol Reef National Park—first established as a national monument this day in 1937—is named for its massive rock domes that reminded explorers of that famous rotunda back in Washington, DC. Why Capitol 'Reef,' though? Because the imposing formations were a major obstacle to travelers through the region, the same way a coral reef is an obstacle to sailors.

This section of the park, Cathedral Valley, is dotted with monoliths that differ from the namesake domes, instead featuring sheer, jagged walls. While most of the park rests on a steeply warped section of Earth's crust, Cathedral Valley is relatively flat—so rather than carving out gently sloping domes, water erosion here has tended to cut deep, narrow recesses down the rock faces.

这个“暗礁”离海很远…

…也不是以它命名的美国国会大厦。犹他州国会珊瑚礁国家公园于1937年作为国家纪念碑首次建立,以其巨大的岩石圆顶命名,使探险家们想起了华盛顿特区著名的圆形大厅。但为什么国会大厦是“暗礁”?因为壮观的地形是旅行者穿越该地区的主要障碍,就像珊瑚礁是海员的障碍一样。

公园的这一部分,即大教堂谷,点缀着不同于同名圆顶的巨石,取而代之的是陡峭、参差不齐的墙壁。虽然公园的大部分都坐落在地壳急剧弯曲的部分,但大教堂山谷相对平坦,因此这里的水侵蚀倾向于沿着岩石表面切割出深而窄的凹坑,而不是雕刻出缓倾斜的圆顶。

阿卡迪亚国家公园里的水獭悬崖,缅因州 Otter Cliffs, Acadia National Park, Maine (© dbimages/Alamy)

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阿卡迪亚国家公园里的水獭悬崖缅因州 Otter Cliffs, Acadia National Park, Maine (© dbimages/Alamy)

Working for that cliffside view

Maine's Acadia National Park serves up spectacular views at most every turn. But the park's Otter Cliffs on Mount Desert Island offer the adventurous among us a chance to take in the picturesque Atlantic shoreline from the edge of a sheer granite wall. Rising some 60 feet above the crashing waves below, the cliffs are shown here at low tide—when the tide is up, that ledge at the bottom is completely submerged.

The spot's become one of New England's premier climbing destinations, with routes beloved by experts and beginners alike. Climbers begin by either rappelling down the cliff or being lowered from the top. The heart races at the bottom, as waves crash against the seawall right below the climber's shoes and ocean spray makes the first few hand- and footholds slippery. From there, the only way out is up, back to the top of this stunning crag and the cap to a thrilling ascent.

在悬崖边工作

缅因州的阿卡迪亚国家公园最多在每个转弯处都能看到壮观的景色。但公园位于荒上的水獭悬崖为我们中的冒险者提供了一个从陡峭的岗岩墙边缘欣赏风景如画的大西洋海岸线的机会。这些悬崖高出下面汹涌的海浪约60英尺,在低潮时,当涨潮时,悬崖底部的岩壁完全被淹没。

该景点已成为新英格兰首要的登山目的地之一,其路线深受专家和初学者的喜爱。攀岩者一开始要么从悬崖上攀爬下来,要么从山顶往下爬。当海浪拍打着登山者鞋下的海堤时,心脏在底部跳动,海水的浪花使最初的几个手和脚点变得很滑。从那里出发,唯一的出路就是爬上,回到这座令人惊叹的峭壁的顶端,再爬上令人激动的山峰。