标签 森林 下的文章

威拉米特国家森林麦肯齐河步道上的桥,美国 Bridge on the McKenzie River Trail, Willamette National Forest, Oregon (© Don Paulson/Danita Delimont)

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威拉米特国家森林麦肯齐步道上的美国 Bridge on the McKenzie River Trail, Willamette National Forest, Oregon (© Don Paulson/Danita Delimont)

徒步旅行 Take a hike!

麦肯齐河步道上的桥梁

我们的照片显示俄勒冈州的麦肯齐河国家休闲步道,威拉米特国家森林的一部分。这条小径蜿蜒于泊、河流水之间,引导您穿过荫蔽的古老森林。其中一个亮点是可以俯瞰塔莫利奇蓝池(Tamolich Blue Pool),这是一个清澈见底的游泳池,由河水注入其中而成。

Bridge on the McKenzie River Trail

Our photo shows Oregon's McKenzie River National Recreation Trail, part of the Willamette National Forest. This trail winds by lakes, rivers, and springs, guiding you through shady old-growth forests. One highlight: the view overlooking Tamolich Blue Pool, a crystal-clear pool created by the river bubbling up into it.

秋天的图林根森林与瓦特堡城堡,德国 Thuringian Forest in autumn with Wartburg Castle, Germany (© ezypix/Getty Images)

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秋天图林根森林与瓦特堡城堡德国 Thuringian Forest in autumn with Wartburg Castle, Germany (© ezypix/Getty Images)

等等,这上得有座城堡! 'Wait, mountain—you shall bear my castle!'

俯瞰德国图林根森林的沃特堡城堡

当你浏览今天德国图林根森林木变色的照片时,请注意远处的城堡。这就是瓦茨堡,一座建于中世纪的城堡,对有信仰的人来说意义重大。它是图林根天主教圣伊丽莎白的故乡,也是马丁·路德流亡期间将新约翻译成德语的地方。它是该地区最受欢迎的旅游景点,以其典型的中世纪建筑而闻名。

关于沃特堡的命名,有一些巧妙的文字游戏正在进行。”“Warte”是德语中“watchtower”和“wait”的意思传统认为,城堡的创建者惊呼“Warte,Berg du sollst mir eine Burg tragen!”或者“等等,大山,你将承受我的城堡!”看到位置后。注意那句引语中的“berg”和“burg”,它们分别翻译为山和堡垒。因此,在德国将单词拼凑在一起的伟大传统中,沃特堡这个名字应运而生。

如果你对这座城堡不感兴趣,那么素有“德国绿心”之称的图林根森林对游客来说也有其独特的魅力。德国最古老、最受欢迎的长途徒步旅行步道伦斯泰格(Rennsteig)在森林中绵延约110英里。如果你外出徒步旅行,你会注意到该地区总体上很安静,空气清新、无污染。你甚至可能会遇到一些小村庄,这些村庄遍布该地区,以欢迎外来者而闻名。

Wartburg Castle overlooking Thuringian Forest in Germany

As you glance over today's photo of the trees changing color in Thuringian Forest in Germany, make note of the castle in the distance. That's Wartburg, a castle built in the Middle Ages that holds significance to people of faith. It was the home of the Catholic Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia, and also where Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German while in exile. It's the area's most popular tourist attraction and has been recognized for its quintessential medieval architecture.

There's some clever wordplay going on regarding how Wartburg was named. 'Warte' is German for both 'watchtower' and 'wait.' Tradition suggests the castle's founder exclaimed 'Warte, Berg—du sollst mir eine Burg tragen!' or 'Wait, mountain—you shall bear my castle!' upon seeing the location. Note the 'berg' and 'burg' in that quote, which translate to mountain and fortress, respectively. And so in the grand German tradition of mashing words together, the name Wartburg came to be.

If the castle isn't of interest to you, Thuringian Forest, known as the Green Heart of Germany, has plenty of its own charm for tourists. The oldest and most popular long-distance hiking trail in Germany, the Rennsteig, runs for about 110 miles within the forest. If you're out for a hike you'll notice the general quietness of the area and fresh, unpolluted air. You may even happen upon the tiny villages that pepper the area and have a reputation for welcoming outsiders.

普雷维利峡谷里的河流和棕榈树森林,希腊克里特岛 Preveli Gorge with river and palm tree forest, South Chania, Crete, Greece (© borchee/Getty Images)

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普雷维利峡谷里的河流和棕榈森林希腊克里特岛 Preveli Gorge with river and palm tree forest, South Chania, Crete, Greece (© borchee/Getty Images)

值得一去的魅力峡谷 A gorge-ous place to drop in

Prevali Gorge

Trojan War-era rest stop? Local legend has it that this striking and historic location in southern Crete was a stopover on Odysseus's long return to Ithica. Whatever credence you give to Homeric tales of island hopping, there's no denying the appeal of the palm-lined Preveli Gorge or the enchanting beach it pours out to. Preveli Beach, just out of the frame of this image, was a favorite spot for hippie travelers in the '60s and '70s and remains an idyllic tourist destination today.

Like most of the ancient, well-trodden Mediterranean islands, Crete—the largest of the many Greek isles—has a rich, epoch-spanning history. Here on Crete's southern coast, Preveli Gorge is home to an influential monastery with two building complexes: the Lower (Kato) Monastery of Saint John the Baptist and the Rear (Pisso) Monastery of Saint John the Theologian. The holy sites date back at least as far as the 16th century, and possibly had origins as far back as the 10th century.

During the long occupation of Crete by the Ottoman Empire, Preveli Monastery was a center of rebellion and patriotism, with monks often serving as leaders and warriors in the many revolts against the occupiers. After more than 250 years, Crete finally won its freedom and joined Greece in 1913. The monastery would again find itself at the center of world events when it provided shelter and supplies to Allied soldiers fighting German occupiers during World War II.

普雷瓦利峡谷

特洛伊战争时代休息停止?当地传说,这个位于克里特南部的引人注目的历史遗址是奥德修斯长期返回伊提卡的中途停留地。无论你如何相信荷马式的跳岛故事,都无法否认棕榈林环绕的普雷维利峡谷或它倾泻而出的迷人海滩的吸引力。普雷维利海滩,就在这张照片的框架之外,是60年代和70年代嬉皮士旅行者最喜欢的地方,今天仍然是一个田园诗般的旅游目的地。

克里特岛是希腊众多岛屿中最大的岛屿,与大多数古老、人迹罕至的地中海岛屿一样,有着丰富、跨越时代的历史。普雷维利峡谷位于克里特岛南部海岸,是一座有两座建筑群的有影响力的修道院的所在地:浸礼会圣约翰下(加藤)修道院和神学家圣约翰后(皮索)修道院。这些圣地至少可以追溯到16世纪,可能起源于10世纪。

在奥斯曼帝国长期占领克里特岛期间,普雷维利修道院是叛乱和爱国主义的中心,僧侣经常在许多反抗占领者的起义中担任领袖和战士。250多年后,克里特岛终于赢得了自由,并于1913年加入希腊。当修道院为二战期间与德国占领者作战的盟军士兵提供住所和物资时,它将再次成为世界事件的中心。

加勒廷国家森林里的小溪,美国蒙大拿州 Hyalite Creek in the Custer Gallatin National Forest, Montana (© Jared Lloyd/Getty Images)

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加勒廷国家森林里的小溪,美国蒙大拿州 Hyalite Creek in the Custer Gallatin National Forest, Montana (© Jared Lloyd/Getty Images)

垂钓者的天堂 An angler's paradise

Hyalite Creek at Custer-Gallatin National Forest, Montana

Today we're taking a little fishing trip just south of Bozeman, Montana, to Hyalite Creek, which runs through Custer Gallatin National Forest. This is one of the most heavily visited recreation areas in Montana, especially for those who like to fish. Late 1800s logging operations in the surrounding forest damaged the habitat for trout in Hyalite Creek, but stream restoration projects have increased trout populations to such an extent that this is now considered a world-class destination for fly fishing.

Even if you're not the fishing type, the ecologically diverse landscapes of Custer Gallatin National Forest will delight most any visitor. Stretching across more than 3 million acres, there's plenty of hiking, camping, and mountain climbing to be had. If you're up for something a little different, hop over to Grasshopper Glacier in the Beartooth Mountains. Entombed inside the ice are millions of the now extinct Rocky Mountain locusts that were trapped long ago while swarming during severe storms.

蒙大拿州卡斯特加拉廷国家森林的Hyalite溪

今天,我们将在蒙大拿州博兹曼南部进行一次小钓鱼之旅,前往穿过卡斯特加拉廷国家森林的Hyalite Creek。这是蒙大拿州游客最多的休闲区之一,尤其是对于那些喜欢钓鱼的人来说。19世纪后期,在周围森林进行的伐木作业破坏了Hyalite Creek鳟鱼的栖息地,但河流恢复项目增加了鳟鱼的数量,以至于现在这里被认为是世界级的飞钓目的地。

即使你不是钓鱼爱好者,卡斯特·加拉廷国家森林的生态多样性景观也会让所有游客感到愉悦。绵延300多万英亩,有大量的徒步旅行、露营和登活动。如果你想做一些不同的事情,那就跳到Beartooth山脉的Grasshopper Glacier。数百万现已灭绝的落基山脉蝗虫被埋在冰中,这些蝗虫很久以前就被困在暴风雨中成群结队。

蒙特维德云雾森林中的吊桥,哥斯达黎加 Hanging bridge in Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica (© Dmitriy Burlakov/Getty Images)

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蒙特维德云森林中的吊桥哥斯达黎加 Hanging bridge in Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica (© Dmitriy Burlakov/Getty Images)

上面的空气怎么样? How's the air up there?

Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica

Today we're taking a walk through the clouds to visit one of the most beautiful and biodiverse places on the planet. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest is in the Tilarán mountain range 5,000 feet above sea level. Hundreds of different animal species and thousands of insect and plant species call the forest home. Diligent nature lovers could count nearly 700 different types of butterflies and 500 different species of orchids during a visit. Famous in the scientific community, the forest also attracts more than 70,000 tourists a year.

You may be wondering, what exactly is a 'cloud forest?' Different than a rainforest, they're forests high enough above sea level to be covered by persistent mist and fog generated by the forest's own evaporating moisture. This makes for a damp and humid, yet cool environment. Generally tropical, they're pretty rare. Only 1% of the current global woodland is considered true cloud forest. Entirely dependent on an area's local climate, it is expected that many of the 736 locations currently identified as cloud forests will be strongly impacted and altered in the coming years. Monteverde, in fact, is known as the location where the first climate-related species extinction was recorded—in the 1980s, the golden toad fell victim to a parasitic fungus that spread into the area due to the changing climate.

哥斯达黎加蒙特维德云林

今天,我们将在云层中漫步,参观地球上最美丽、生物多样性最强的地方之一。哥斯达黎加的蒙特维德云林位于海拔5000英尺的蒂拉兰山脉。数百种不同的动物物种和数千种昆虫和植物物种称之为森林之家。勤奋的自然爱好者在一次参观中可以数出近700种不同类型的蝴蝶和500种不同种类的兰。这片森林在科学界享有盛誉,每年也吸引了70000多名游客。

你可能想知道,“云林”到底是什么与雨林不同的是,它们的海拔高度足以被森林自身蒸发水分产生的持续雾所覆盖。这就形成了一个潮湿而凉爽的环境。通常是热带地区,它们非常罕见。目前全球只有1%的林地被认为是真正的云林。完全取决于一个地区的当地气候,预计目前被确定为云林的736个地点中的许多将在未来几年受到强烈影响和改变。事实上,蒙特维德是20世纪80年代记录的第一个与气候相关物种灭绝的地方,金蟾是一种寄生真菌的受害者,这种真菌由于气候变化而传播到该地区。

春天的豹溪瀑布,吉福德·平肖国家森林,美国华盛顿州 Panther Creek Falls in spring, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington (© Stephen Matera/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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春天的豹溪瀑布,吉福德·平肖国家森林美国华盛顿州 Panther Creek Falls in spring, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Washington (© Stephen Matera/Tandem Stills + Motion)

拥有6000年历史的大森林 A large forest with 6,000 of years of history

Gifford Pinchot National Forest

Today we're paying a visit to an 'elder statesman' of the United States' national forests. Seen in today's photo is Panther Creek Falls at Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Washington state. Officially, the forest was named in 1949 in honor of Pinchot, the first head of the US Forest Service. Located between Mount St. Helens to the west and Mount Adams to the east, the land was set aside as a place worth preserving as far back as 1897. But people had been living in the forest for more than 6,000 years. Archaeologists continue to make discoveries within the dense forest that teach us about the past lives of Native Americans.

Spanning 1.3 million acres, GPNF exhibits an array of natural wonders: forests, wildlife, mountains, and numerous rivers and lakes that offer excellent fishing. Goose Lake is said to be the best fishing hole in the state. The forest is known as a native habitat for several threatened species, like the spotted owl, bull trout, and chinook salmon. One of the largest known Ponderosa pines in the world rose 202 feet at the base of Mount Adams before its death in 2015. The grounds also include the 110,000-acre Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, established in 1982.

吉福德平肖国家森林

今天我们要拜访美国国家森林的一位“资深政治家”。在今天的照片中可以看到华盛顿州吉福德平肖国家森林的豹溪瀑布。该森林于1949年正式命名,以纪念美国林业局第一任局长平肖。这片土地位于西面的圣海伦斯和东面的亚当斯山之间,早在1897年就被作为一个值得保护的地方保留下来。但是人们已经在森林里生活了6000多年。考古学家继续在茂密的森林中进行发现,让我们了解美洲原住民的过去生活。

GPNF占地130万英亩,展示了一系列自然奇观:森林、野生动物、山脉,以及无数河流泊,这些流和湖泊提供了极好的渔业。鹅湖据说是该州最好的渔场。这片森林被称为几种濒危物种的原生栖息地,如斑点猫头鹰、牛鳟鱼和奇努克鲑鱼。2015年亚当斯山死亡前,世界上已知最大的黄松之一在亚当斯山的底部上升了202英尺。场地还包括建于1982年的占地11万英亩的圣海伦斯山国家火山纪念碑。

一条蜿蜒穿过开满蓝铃花森林的小径,英格兰赫特福德郡 A path winding through a forest of bluebells in Hertfordshire, England (© JayKay57/Getty Images)

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一条蜿蜒穿过开满蓝铃花森林的小径,英格兰赫特福德郡 A path winding through a forest of bluebells in Hertfordshire, England (© JayKay57/Getty Images)

是否有胆量穿过这片蓝铃丛? Dare to tread through the fairy flower?

Bluebells in Hertfordshire, England

For just a few weeks every spring, across the pond in England and under the newly forming woodland canopy, one of the most enchanting flowers begins to bloom. The bluebell is known by many names but those who know it as the 'fairy flower' might be the most prepared to withstand its strong, sweetly scented allure. According to British folklore, a blooming bluebell carpet on the woodland floor is a mystical place where fairies live. The legends hold that fairies hang their spells on the flowers to dry, and disturbing them would unleash the magic. In earlier times, children were warned that picking bluebells would cause them to be spirited away. Even adults could fall victim to the flower, being doomed to wander the woods and never escape. And heaven forbid you ever happen to hear the fairies ring the bluebells for their gatherings—it means your death is imminent, a belief that inspired another name for bluebells: 'dead men's bells.'

The truth of the matter is that bluebells are considered toxic. Ancient folktales about fairies were a good way to make sure curious humans avoided handling them. But enjoying their beauty is a whole different matter. Walking through ancient woodland to catch a glimpse of these short-lived beauties is a popular activity throughout the United Kingdom where they are most often found, like those in today's photo of Hertfordshire, England. Rare in other parts of the world, there has been a success in transplanting them, should you want to want to tempt fate with the fairies.

英国赫特福德郡的风铃草

每年春天只有几个星期,在英格兰的池塘对面,在新形成的林地冠下,一朵最迷人的花开始绽放。风铃草有很多名字,但那些知道它是“仙女花”的人可能最愿意忍受它强烈的、芳香的诱惑。根据英国民间传说,林地地板上盛开的蓝铃地毯是仙女们居住的神秘地方。传说中,仙女们把咒语挂在花朵上晾干,扰乱它们就会释放魔法。早些时候,孩子们被警告说,摘风铃草会导致他们被偷偷带走。即使是成年人也可能成为花朵的牺牲品,注定要在树林中徘徊,永远无法逃脱。天哪,你不会碰巧听到仙女们在聚会上敲响风铃,这意味着你的死亡即将来临,这一信念激发了风铃的另一个名字:“死人的铃铛”

事实上,风铃草被认为是有毒的。关于仙女的古代民间故事是确保好奇的人类避免接触它们的好方法。但享受它们的美丽是完全不同的事情。漫步在古老的林地,欣赏这些短暂的美女,是英国最常见的活动,就像今天英国赫特福德郡的照片一样。在世界其他地方很少见,如果你想和仙女们一起挑战命运,移植它们已经成功了。

森林中的结香花,日本 Mitsumata (aka paperbush) in a forest in Japan (© nattya3714/Getty Images)

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森林中的结香日本 Mitsumata (aka paperbush) in a forest in Japan (© nattya3714/Getty Images)

是金色的花朵?还是造纸的灵魂? Golden flowers, paper banknotes?

Mitsumata blossoms

Stress seems to melt away when you gaze at this serene forest protecting the mitsumata blossoms below. While the flowering buds are beautiful in their natural state, the mitsumata shrub (Edgeworthia chrysantha) has so much more to offer. Originally brought from China to Japan by monks, the green plant is now a staple of Japanese papermaking and one of three principle ingredients in washi, traditional Japanese paper. No wonder, then, that it's also known as the Oriental paperbush. Mitsumata washi is dense and holds ink well—it's a favorite of artists and calligraphers—and sheets of mitsumata paper are also used in traditional shoji screens.

It's this very versatility and strength that made mitsumata a natural candidate for Japanese banknotes. The dense, short fiber from the inner layer of bark helps create sturdy currency that can withstand millions of grubby hands and transactions. Mitsumata made its Japanese banknote debut in 1879, and it's still used in currency there today.

Want to see mitsumata in bloom? Spring's the time to catch the golden flowers, and gardeners note that you'll smell the heady, almost spicy fragrance before you see the bush itself. After the flowers fade, the leaves take on a bluish, silvery hue, and in autumn they turn golden themselves.

三宅多花

当你凝视这片宁静的森林,保护着下面的三缄花时,压力似乎消失了。虽然花蕾在自然状态下是美丽的,但三宅田灌木(Edgeworthia chrysantha)还有很多可以提供的。这种绿色植物最初是由僧侣从中国带到日本的,现在是日本造纸的主要原料,也是日本传统纸张“和纸”的三大主要成分之一。难怪它也被称为东方纸丛。三宅和美是一种密度高、墨迹好的纸张,是艺术家和法家的最爱,传统的幕布也使用三宅和美的纸张。

正是这种多才多艺和强大的实力,使三田成为日本纸币的天然候选。皮内层密集的短纤维有助于创造出坚固的货币,可以承受数百万肮脏的手和交易。三濑于1879年首次发行日本纸币,至今仍在日本使用。

想看三浦田盛开吗?春天是捕捉金花的时候,园丁们注意到,在你看到灌木之前,你会闻到令人陶醉的、几乎是辛辣的香味。花凋谢后,叶子呈现出蓝色、银色的色调,到了秋天,它们自己也变成了金色。

奥卡拉国家森林中的杜松泉,美国佛罗里达州 Juniper Springs in Ocala National Forest, Florida (© Michael Warren/Getty Images)

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奥卡拉国家森林中的杜松美国佛罗里达州 Juniper Springs in Ocala National Forest, Florida (© Michael Warren/Getty Images)

全年均可在此畅游 You can take a refreshing dip here any day of the year

Juniper Springs, Florida

Yes, the water here is as inviting as it looks: clear as glass, the shade of a precious gem, and a perfect 73 degrees every day of the year. Set within a subtropical forest, it is a veritable Garden of Eden. Long before Disney arrived in the Sunshine State, natural springs like this one were what visitors flocked to. Juniper Springs, seen here, is one of Florida's oldest and best-known recreation areas, established in the 1930s as a place to camp, hike, paddle, and, of course, swim.

Florida is home to the largest concentration of freshwater springs in the world, with more than 1,000 of them scattered mostly across the upper part of the state, where the massive Floridan aquifer breaks through the surface. This underground reservoir hides beneath the entire state and parts of neighboring states. Under constant pressure, the water sometimes reaches voids in the surface, and a spring is created. This aquifer provides Florida with almost all its drinking water.

Like so many of our natural resources, Florida's springs are under threat. Overextraction and pollution from fertilizers and septic systems have put some springs in peril. Luckily for anyone visiting Juniper Springs, these jewel-toned waters are protected by the Ocala National Forest, so it's likely to look like this for a long time.

佛罗里达州杜松斯普林斯

是的,这里的水和它看起来一样诱人:清澈如玻璃,宝石般的阴影,一年中每天都有完美的73度。它坐落在亚热带森林中,是名副其实的伊甸园。早在迪士尼抵达阳之州之前,像这样的天然泉水就是游客们蜂拥而来的地方。这里所见的刺柏泉是佛罗里达州最古老、最著名的休闲区之一,建于20世纪30年代,是露营、徒步旅行、划桨,当然还有游泳的地方。

佛罗里达州是世界上淡水泉最集中的地方,其中1000多处主要分布在佛罗里达州的上半部分,那里巨大的弗洛里丹含水层穿透地表。这个地下水库隐藏在整个州和邻近州的部分地区之下。在恒定的压力下,水有时会到达表面的空隙,从而产生一个弹簧。该含水层为佛罗里达州提供了几乎所有的饮用水。

和我们的许多自然资源一样,佛罗里达州的泉水也受到威胁。肥料和化粪池系统的过度抽取和污染已经使一些泉水处于危险之中。幸运的是,对于任何参观Juniper Springs的人来说,这些宝石色的水域都受到奥卡拉国家森林的保护,所以很可能很长一段时间都是这样。

西西伯利亚森林中的阳光,俄罗斯拉杜日内市附近 Sunlight in the forest of Western Siberia, near the city of Raduzhny, Russia (© Leonid Ikan/Shutterstock)

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西西伯利亚森林中的阳俄罗斯拉杜日内市附近 Sunlight in the forest of Western Siberia, near the city of Raduzhny, Russia (© Leonid Ikan/Shutterstock)

Winter solstice

The whole Northern Hemisphere will experience the winter solstice today, but the farther north you get, the more obvious it'll be. In high-latitude areas like here in Siberia, the sun's arc cuts especially low across the sky as winter sets in. Today, this spot near the city of Raduzhny will barely get 5 hours' daylight.

Of course, even in the hotter climes of Earth's northern half, today is the shortest day of the year. So, while you wait for the long night to set in, make those daylight hours count!

冬至

今天整个北半球都将经历至,但你越往北走,冬至就越明显。在西伯利亚这样的高纬度地区,冬天来临时,太阳的弧线划破天空的距离特别低。今天,拉杜兹尼市附近的这一地区几乎没有5小时的日照。

当然,即使在地球北半球的炎热气候中,今天也是一年中最短的一天。所以,当你等待漫漫长夜来临的时候,让那些白天变得有意义!