标签 苏格兰 下的文章

Invergarry村庄附近的森林,苏格兰 Forest near the village of Invergarry, Scotland (© Matt Anderson Photography/Getty Images)

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Invergarry村庄附近的森林苏格兰 Forest near the village of Invergarry, Scotland (© Matt Anderson Photography/Getty Images)

The Great Glen

Was this photo taken in a peppermint forest? This rare and delicate hoarfrost may look like a confectioner's coating, but it's just the ice that forms when the Scottish Highlands' fog mixes perfectly with a sharp cold snap.

We're in a storied section of Scotland—sort of a lowland of the Highlands—called the Great Glen. This deep valley runs 62 miles coast to coast—from a North Sea inlet on the east to Loch Linnhe on the west. The Great Glen's gentle slopes enclose fairytale forests like these as well as quaint villages and lochs—including nearby Invergarry and Loch Oich, respectively.

大峡谷

这张照片是在薄荷林里拍的吗?这种罕见而微妙的白霜看起来像糖果店的外衣,但它只是当苏格兰高地与刺骨的寒流完美混合时形成的冰。

我们在苏格兰的一个历史悠久的地区,有点像高地的低地,叫做大峡谷。这个深谷从东到西从北海的一个海到林,沿海岸延伸62英里。大峡谷的缓坡环绕着童话般的森林,还有古雅的村庄和湖泊,包括附近的因弗加里湖和奥奇湖。

穿越格伦菲南高架桥的蒸汽火车,苏格兰因弗内斯郡 The Jacobite steam train crossing the Glenfinnan Viaduct in Inverness-shire, Scotland (© The Escape of Malee/Shutterstock)

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穿越格伦菲南高架的蒸汽火车苏格兰因弗内斯郡 The Jacobite steam train crossing the Glenfinnan Viaduct in Inverness-shire, Scotland (© The Escape of Malee/Shutterstock)

Scotland Glenfinnan Viaduct

Muggles from around the world flock to this iconic scene at the top of Loch Shiel in the West Highlands of Scotland to marvel at the 21-arched Glenfinnan Viaduct, also known as the 'Harry Potter bridge.' The curving structure was made famous in the film adaptation of J.K. Rowling's novels as part of the route taken by the Hogwarts Express, which carries students to and from the wizarding boarding school at the start and end of every term. And today is a reason to celebrate for Potterheads, as we are marking the 20th anniversary of Harry Potter's big screen debut.

In real life, the Hogwarts Express is the Jacobite steam train. It's described as one of the greatest railway journeys in the world, taking passengers across the viaduct on a magical 84-mile round-trip between the towns of Fort William and Mallaig in summer months, passing Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom, and some of Scotland's most splendid scenery.

苏格兰格兰芬南高架桥

来自世界各地的麻瓜们蜂拥而至,来到苏格兰西部高地希勒山顶的这一标志性场景,惊叹于21座拱形格伦芬南高架桥,也被称为“哈利波特桥”。这座弯曲的结构在改编自J.K.罗琳小说的电影中出名,是霍格沃茨特快列车路线的一部分,在每个学期的开始和结束时,它会运送学生往返于魔法寄宿学校。今天是我们为《波特头》庆祝的一个理由,因为我们正在庆祝《哈利波特》大银幕首映20周年。

在现实生活中,霍格沃茨特快列车是雅各比特蒸汽火车。它被描述为世界上最伟大的铁路旅行之一,在夏季的几个月里,乘客们将穿越高架桥,在威廉堡和马莱格镇之间神奇地往返84英里,途经英国最高的山脉本尼维斯,以及苏格兰最壮丽的风景。

从索尔兹伯里的峭壁上俯瞰爱丁堡,苏格兰荷里路德公园 Salisbury Crags in Holyrood Park overlooking Edinburgh, Scotland (© Andrew Merry/Getty Images)

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从索尔兹伯里的峭壁上俯瞰爱丁堡苏格兰荷里路德公园 Salisbury Crags in Holyrood Park overlooking Edinburgh, Scotland (© Andrew Merry/Getty Images)

Looking down upon 'The Athens of the North'

We're kicking off festival season in Edinburgh, Scotland, with this view of the capital city from Salisbury Crags in Holyrood Park. Throughout the month of August, the city is hosting a staggering number of music, theater, opera, dance, and other types of performances as part of the Edinburgh International Festival and the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, which is the world's largest international arts festival.

Located less than a half-mile southeast from Edinburgh's main shopping street, Holyrood Park provides a welcome respite from the festival hubbub. Hike up here to take in views of Edinburgh and its famous landmarks, including Edinburgh Castle, the Scottish Parliament, Holyrood Palace, the City Centre, and the New Town, which stretches out toward the sea. Formed by glaciers and volcanic activity millions of years ago, these craggy outcroppings are among the best examples of a geological sill in Europe. We're lucky that they're still here for our hiking pleasure. For two centuries, the hard dolerite was mined, broken up and shipped off throughout the UK for use as cobblestoned streets. The locals put a stop to the mining and now we can stand here to take in the views—and during festival season if we listen closely, we may hear strains of music coming from somewhere down below.

俯瞰“北方的雅典

我们将在苏格兰爱丁堡拉开节日的序幕,从Holyrood公园的索尔兹伯里峭壁上俯瞰首都。整个8月份,该市举办了数量惊人的音乐、戏剧、歌剧、舞蹈和其他类型的表演,作为爱丁堡国际艺术节和爱丁堡边缘艺术节的一部分,这是世界上最大的国际艺术节。

Holyrood公园位于爱丁堡主要购物街东南方向不到半英里的地方,为人们提供了一个从节日喧嚣中解脱出来的好去处。徒步来到这里,可以欣赏爱丁堡及其著名的地标性建筑,包括爱丁堡城堡、苏格兰议会、霍利罗德宫、市中心和伸向大海的新城。由数百万年前的冰川火山活动形成,这些崎岖的露头是欧洲地质岩床的最好例子之一。我们很幸运,他们还在这里是为了我们的徒步旅行。两个世纪以来,硬辉绿岩被开采、破碎并运往英国各地,用作鹅卵石街道。当地人停止了采矿,现在我们可以站在这里欣赏风景。在节日期间,如果我们仔细聆听,我们可能会听到下面某处传来的音乐。

东洛锡安的金黄麦田,苏格兰 Barley field in East Lothian, Scotland (© Scott Masterton/plainpicture)

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东洛锡安的金黄麦田苏格兰 Barley field in East Lothian, Scotland (© Scott Masterton/plainpicture)

Welcome to Scotland's garden

Today, we're in the 'Garden of Scotland,' better known as the East Lothian region, to pay homage to the area's agricultural roots on Lammas Day. Also known as Loaf Mass Day, it's an observance that marks the beginning of the harvest season and is traditionally celebrated on August 1. The holiday is descended from the ancient British tradition known during the Middle Ages as the Gule of August and was gradually incorporated into the Christian liturgy celebrating Holy Communion. It gets its name from loaves of bread baked from the first harvested grain of the season each year.

Traditionally, Lammastide festivals would mean up to 10 days of raucous eating, drinking, and general merriment. Scottish couples could also take advantage of another common practice during a Lammas fair: a trial marriage, or 'handfast,' where a young couple could live together for a trial period that could last as long as the Lammas festival itself, or even up to a full year. If at the end of the trial the couple decided to call things off, the woman could return to her family with all of her possessions. If a child was born from this union, it would go live with the father without stigma. And while this arrangement seems awfully modern, it was likely just a consequence of a lack of priests—handfasts allowed a single traveling priest to perform all the town's weddings in one day.

欢迎来到苏格兰花园

今天,我们来到了“苏格兰园”,更著名的是东洛锡安地区,在南丫日向该地区的农业根源致敬。也被称为面包弥撒日,这是一个标志着收获季节开始的节日,传统上在8月1日庆祝。这个节日起源于中世纪英国古老的传统,被称为八月红色,并逐渐融入基督教庆祝圣餐的礼拜仪式中。它的名字来源于每年收获的第一批谷物烘焙的面包。

传统上,Lammatide节日将意味着长达10天的喧闹的饮食和一般的欢乐。苏格兰夫妇还可以利用拉玛节期间的另一种常见做法:试婚,或“禁手”,年轻夫妇可以在一起生活一段试婚期,这段试婚期可能与拉玛节本身一样长,甚至长达一整年。如果在庭审结束时,这对夫妇决定取消婚约,这名妇女可以带着她所有的财产回到家中。如果一个孩子是从这种结合中出生的,那么他将与父亲生活在一起,没有任何耻辱感。虽然这种安排看起来非常现代,但很可能只是因为缺少牧师的手铐,一个旅行的牧师可以在一天内完成镇上所有的婚礼。

格伦·埃蒂夫盛开着石南花的小湖,苏格兰 Small loch in Glen Etive, Scotland (© Oliver Hellowell/Minden Pictures)

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格伦·埃蒂夫盛开着石南的小苏格兰 Small loch in Glen Etive, Scotland (© Oliver Hellowell/Minden Pictures)

An island in the Highlands

Here in the Scottish Highlands, there's something about the rugged environs of Glen Etive that has tickled the imaginations of both ancient and modern storytellers. A glen is a long, narrow valley and this one is especially beautiful. It has strange footnotes in both Irish and Scottish folklore. The name itself translates to 'little fierce one' and is given in honor of Etive, the Gaelic goddess long associated with nearby Loch Etive.

According to an Irish myth, Glen Etive was founded by the tragic heroine Deirdre and her lover Naoise after they were forced into exile. In Scottish folklore, Glen Etive is said to be the home of a mythical creature called a Fachan--a giant cyclops with one leg, a single tuft of hair, and a lone hand protruding from its chest. Glen Etive has caught the attention of modern storytellers as well, drawn to its history and beautiful scenery. A surprising number of TV shows and major films, like 'Braveheart' and the James Bond installment 'Skyfall,' have shot on location here.

Glen Etive is also one of Scotland's 40 National Scenic Areas, and is a favorite destination for white water kayakers, who journey here to shoot down the series of rapids, falls, and pool drops along the River Etive. Hikers trek the mountain trails around Ben Starav to the southeast and the Glen Coe mountains in the north. Some of these of hikers are known as 'peak baggers,' who make it a game to summit every peak in the region. So far, about 4,000 or so people have completed the entire list of 284 Scottish peaks, or 'munros' as they're known locally.

高地上的一个屿

在苏格兰高地,格伦艾蒂夫崎岖的环境激发了古代和现代说人的想象力。峡谷是一个又长又窄的山谷,这个谷特别美丽。它在爱尔兰和苏格兰民间传说中都有奇怪的脚注。这个名字本身翻译成“小凶猛的一个”,是为了纪念艾蒂芙,长期以来与附近的艾蒂芙湖联系在一起的盖尔女神。

根据一个爱尔兰神话,格伦·艾蒂夫是由悲剧女主角迪尔德雷和她的情人娜奥伊丝在被迫流亡后建立的。在苏格兰民间传说中,格伦埃蒂夫据说是一种神话生物法坎的家——一只巨大的独眼巨人,一条腿,一簇头发,一只手从胸前伸出。格伦艾蒂夫吸引了现代说书人的注意,也被它的历史和美丽的风景所吸引。很多电视节目和主要电影,如《勇敢的心》和詹姆斯·邦德的《天崩地裂》都在这里拍摄。

格伦艾蒂夫也是苏格兰40个国家级风景区之一,也是白水皮划艇运动员最喜欢的目的地,他们在这里沿着艾蒂夫击落一系列急流、瀑布和池水。徒步旅行者沿着本斯塔拉夫周围的山路跋涉到东南部和北部的格伦科山脉。其中一些徒步旅行者被称为“峰袋客”,他们把登上该地区的每一座山峰当作游戏。到目前为止,大约有4000人已经完成了284座苏格兰山峰的完整列表,也就是当地人所熟知的“munros”。

艾琳多南堡,苏格兰 Eilean Donan Castle in Scotland (© CBW/Alamy)

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艾琳多南堡,苏格兰 Eilean Donan Castle in Scotland (© CBW/Alamy)

A water loch-ed castle

Located on a small island where three sea lochs meet in northwestern Scotland, the current Eilean Donan Castle is just the latest incarnation of several monastic cells and Scottish clan strongholds that have occupied the small island since the 7th century. The first fortified castle was built in the 13th century to defend against invading Vikings who occupied much of Scotland at the time. An iconic symbol of Scotland, from the 14th-18th centuries, the castle was mostly held by the Mackenzies and defended by the Macraes, both storied clans of the Scottish Highlands. The castle was destroyed in 1719 by the invading British Royal Navy during the Jacobite Uprising, but was rebuilt along its earlier design in the early 20th century by Lt. Colonel John Macrae-Gilstrap.

苏格兰高地上的厄克特城堡和内斯湖 Urquhart Castle and Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands (© AWL Images/Danita Delimont)

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苏格兰高地上的厄克特城堡内斯湖 Urquhart Castle and Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands (© AWL Images/Danita Delimont)

A monster view in Scotland

People love a good mystery. Maybe that's why we've been fascinated by mythical creatures like the Loch Ness monster for nearly 1,500 years. We're looking at Urquhart Castle, a ruin founded in the 13th century, with Loch Ness behind it. As the legend goes, on August 22, 565, an Irish priest named Columba confronted 'Nessie' and commanded the 'water beast' away. Since then, people have claimed to spot, or even photograph the Loch Ness monster, as well as Bigfoot, the chupacabra, the yeti, and other creatures around the world. This subculture practices cryptozoology—the study of hidden animals. Are any of these beasts real? Probably not, but why spoil the fun?

内斯特角灯塔上空的银河 ,苏格兰斯凯岛 Milky Way over Neist Point Lighthouse, Isle of Skye, Scotland (© Shaiith/Getty Images)

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内斯特角灯塔上空的银河苏格兰斯凯岛 Milky Way over Neist Point Lighthouse, Isle of Skye, Scotland (© Shaiith/Getty Images)

Step into the dark

We're on the Isle of Skye, a fitting locale to celebrate the beginning of International Dark Sky Week, and not just because of its name. The Isle of Skye is one of several parts of Scotland that are set aside as Dark Sky parks, where the lack of artificial light makes stargazing a spectacular event, with or without a telescope.

First observed in 2003, International Dark Sky Week was the brainchild of then-high school student Jennifer Barlow. Her goal was to bring awareness of the impact of light pollution on people and the environment. Her efforts have made it a worldwide event and a centerpiece of Global Astronomy Month.