标签 冰川 下的文章

冰川湾国家公园里的兰普鲁冰川,美国阿拉斯加州 Lamplugh Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (© Andrew Peacock/Getty Images)

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 冰川国家公园里的兰普鲁冰川,美国阿拉斯加州 Lamplugh Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (© Andrew Peacock/Getty Images)

古老的冰川与大海相遇的地方 Where ancient ice meets the sea

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

Think of this special spot as the place where two different Alaskas meet—its vast icy north and its verdant maritime south. Glacier Bay is named for this area's dominant feature, the rivers of ice that carve the landscape and periodically calve icebergs into the sea. On February 26, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge declared much of the land around the bay a national monument. But the protected area was greatly expanded in 1980, when a 3.3-million-acre expanse of glaciers, fjords, rainforest, coastline, and mountain peaks was named a national park and preserve.

Pictured here is Lamplugh Glacier, one of the relatively few tidewater glaciers in the park; the vast majority are found inland. Lamplugh is known for its intense blue color—ice and water absorb the red wavelength of white light and transmit blue light, which is what we end up seeing. The thicker and more pure the ice, the more blue it appears.

冰川湾国家公园

把这个特殊的地方想象成两个不同的阿拉斯加人在广阔的冰覆盖的北方和苍翠的海洋南面相遇的地方。冰川湾是以该地区的主要特征命名的,冰的河流切割景观,并周期性地将冰山崩解入海中。1925年2月26日,卡尔文·柯立芝总统宣布海湾周围的大部分土地为国家纪念碑。但1980年,保护区得到了极大的扩展,当时一片330万英亩的冰川、峡湾、雨林海岸线和峰被命名为国家公园和保护区。

这里的图片是兰普卢冰川,公园里相对较少的潮水冰川之一;绝大多数是在内陆发现的。Lamplugh以其强烈的蓝色而闻名,冰和水吸收白的红色波长并传输蓝光,这就是我们最终看到的。冰越纯,越厚。

冰川洞穴里流动的河流,冰岛瓦特纳冰原 Flowing river inside a glacier cave, Vatnajökull, Iceland (© Marco Bottigelli/Getty Images)

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冰川洞穴里流动的河流冰岛瓦特纳冰原 Flowing river inside a glacier cave, Vatnajökull, Iceland (© Marco Bottigelli/Getty Images)

冰,冰,正在坍塌 Ice, ice, caving

Glacier cave in Iceland

The land of fire and ice is home to countless natural wonders, like these brilliant blue caves formed within the ice of a glacier. (Glacier caves are often called ice caves, but the latter term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice.) The majority of these glacier caves are on the southeastern edge of Iceland in Vatnajökull glacier, which covers about 8% of the island nation and is one of the largest glaciers in Europe.

Vatnajökull's caves, formed by the flowing rivers underneath the glacier, are famous for their blue corridors and eerie atmosphere. The caves are only accessible from November until March when temperatures are cold enough to strengthen the ice. The caves vary in size and shape each year, so enjoy the beauty of this one while you can, because it may not be around next winter.

冰川

这片冰之地拥有无数自然奇观,比如这些在冰川冰中形成的明亮的蓝色洞穴。(冰川洞穴通常被称为冰洞,但后一个术语被恰当地用来描述含有全年冰的基岩洞穴。)这些冰川洞穴大多位于冰岛东南边缘的瓦特纳库尔冰川(Vatnajökull glacier),该冰川覆盖了该岛国约8%的面积,是欧洲最大的冰川之一。

Vatnajökull的洞穴由冰川下流动的流形成,以其蓝色的走廊和怪异的氛围而闻名。这些洞穴只有在11月至3月期间才能到达,那时的温度足够冷,足以强化冰。这些洞穴每年都有不同的大小和形状,所以尽可能地欣赏这座洞穴的美丽,因为它可能不会在明年冬天出现。

克卢恩国家公园保护区的山脉和冰川,加拿大育空地区 Saint Elias Mountains and Kaskawulsh Glacier in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon, Canada (© Design Pics Inc/Alamy)

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克卢恩国家公园保护区的山脉冰川加拿大育空地区 Saint Elias Mountains and Kaskawulsh Glacier in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon, Canada (© Design Pics Inc/Alamy)

Kluane National Park

What looks here like an ice road for 50-foot-tall truckers is really Kaskawulsh Glacier in Canada's Kluane National Park. This corner of the Yukon is home to the largest ice field on Earth outside of the poles, with the slow, steady flow of more than 2,000 glaciers continually carving these vast canyons amid the peaks.

Speaking of peaks, glance up and you'll see the Yukon is also paradise for mountain lovers. And Kluane is its pinnacle, literally: Located within the park is Mount Logan, the highest mountain in Canada (and second-highest on the continent after Alaska's Denali).

库隆尼国家公园

对于50英尺高的卡车司机来说,这里看起来像是一条冰路,实际上是加拿大克鲁恩国家公园中的卡斯卡沃尔什冰川。育空地区的这个角落是地球上除极地以外最大的冰原的所在地,2000多条缓慢而稳定的冰川不断地在峰之间雕刻着这些巨大的峡谷

说到山峰,抬头一看,你会发现育空地区也是高山爱好者的天堂。Kluane是它的巅峰,字面意思是:位于公园内的是加拿大最高的山脉洛根山(仅次于阿拉斯加的德纳利山,是该大陆第二高的山)。

格林内尔湖,蒙大拿州冰川国家公园 Grinnell Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana (© Pung/Shutterstock)

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格林内尔蒙大拿冰川国家公园 Grinnell Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana (© Pung/Shutterstock)

'The Crown of the Continent'

With one million acres of rugged, northwestern Montana wilderness to explore, a trip to Glacier National Park could fill up an entire summer and more. But let's just take one day and virtually visit Grinnell Lake. A 7-mile loop trail, a relatively easy one in this rugged country, takes you to the shores of the lake turned emerald-green by glacial silt. Grinnell Lake—as well as Mount Grinnell and Grinnell Glacier—is named for the naturalist and Audubon Society founder George Bird Grinnell. For two decades, he lobbied for the creation of the park, and on May 11, 1910, the 'Crown of the Continent,' as Grinnell dubbed this area, became the nation's 10th national park.

“大陆之冠”

有一百万英亩崎岖不平的蒙大拿州西北部荒野可供探索,一次冰川国家公园之旅可能会填满整个夏天,甚至更多。但让我们一天时间去参观格林内尔湖吧。在这个崎岖的国家,一条7英里长的环形小径相对容易,它会带你到达湖岸,湖岸被冰川淤泥染成翠绿。格林内尔湖以及格林内尔和格林内尔冰川是以博物学家和奥杜邦协会创始人乔治·伯德·格林内尔命名的。二十年来,他一直在游说建立这个国家公园,1910年5月11日,格林内尔称之为“欧洲大陆之冠”的这个地区成为美国第十个国家公园。

冰川国家公园中的佩里托莫雷诺冰川,阿根廷 Perito Moreno Glacier in Patagonia's Los Glaciares National Park, Argentina (© Juergen Schonnop/Getty Images)

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冰川国家公园中的佩里托莫雷诺冰川,阿根廷 Perito Moreno Glacier in Patagonia's Los Glaciares National Park, Argentina (© Juergen Schonnop/Getty Images)

The persistence of Perito Moreno

Yes, it's true that glaciers are shrinking, but not all of them. Perito Moreno, a low-lying glacier in southern Argentina, accumulates ice at about the same rate that it melts into chilly Argentino Lake. This equilibrium makes it one of the few glaciers worldwide that aren't losing mass to climate change.

Perito Moreno is an Argentine icon, partly for its unusual accessibility via the lake, the largest within the nation. Visitors to Los Glaciares National Park can boat or kayak out on ice-blue water for a better look—but they need to keep a safe distance as icebergs constantly calve from the glacier's face, creating huge splashes and waves.

佩里托·莫雷诺的坚持

是的,冰川确实在缩小,但不是全部。阿根廷南部的一座低洼冰川佩里托莫雷诺(Perito Moreno)积冰的速度与它融化到寒冷的阿根廷的速度差不多。这种平衡使它成为全球为数不多的不会因气候变化而失去质量的冰川之一。

佩里托·莫雷诺是阿根廷的一个标志,部分原因是它通过这个国家最大的湖泊不同寻常的可达性。到洛斯冰川国家公园的游客可以在冰蓝色的水面上划或皮划艇,以获得更好的观赏效果,但他们需要保持安全距离,因为冰山不断地从冰川表面脱落,形成巨大的水和海浪。