标签 火山 下的文章

圣海伦斯山国家火山纪念区的边界小径,美国华盛顿州 Boundary Trail in Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, Washington (© Don Geyer/Alamy)

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圣海伦斯国家火山纪念区的边界小径,美国华盛顿州 Boundary Trail in Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, Washington (© Don Geyer/Alamy)

40年的休养生息 40 years of recovery

Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, Washington

Today is an important day in American history. We're standing on the Boundary Trail at Johnston Ridge in the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Forty years ago today, 110,000 acres within Gifford Pinchot National Forest was set aside to memorialize the deadliest and most destructive volcanic eruption in the United States. For nearly nine hours on May 18th, 1980, the Mount St. Helens erupted, forever changing the Washington landscape. The volcanic event started at roughly 8:30 on a Sunday morning with a 5.1 magnitude earthquake. This triggered what is known as a 'lateral eruption,' which means the lava blast comes out of the side of the volcano, rather than the top. The initial blast shaved more than a thousand feet off the mountain's elevation, resulting in a massive avalanche and the destruction of about 150 square miles of the surrounding forest. When the event ended, 57 people had died, 200 homes and almost 200 miles of nearby highway had been destroyed.

The monument was established by President Ronald Reagan in 1982 to preserve the area for research, recreation, and education. The land inside has been left to mostly recover naturally since the eruption. While it's believed that Mount St. Helens will erupt again sometime within the next few centuries, that has not deterred people from hiking and climbing at the monument, which has been allowed since 1986.

圣海伦山国家火山纪念碑,华盛顿

今天是美国历史上重要的一天。我们站在圣海伦斯山国家火山纪念碑的约翰斯顿山脊的边界小道上。四十年前的今天,吉福-平肖国家森林内的110000英亩土地被用来纪念美国最致命、破坏性最大的火山爆发。1980年5月18日,圣海伦斯山爆发了近9个小时,永远改变了华盛顿的景观。火山爆发于周日早上8点30分左右,发生了5.1级地震。这引发了所谓的“侧向喷发”,这意味着熔岩喷发从火山的侧面而不是顶部。最初的爆炸使山的海拔下降了一千多英尺,导致了一场大规模的崩,并摧毁了周围约150平方英里的森林。活动结束时,57人死亡,200所房屋和近200英里的附近公路被毁。

该纪念碑由罗纳德·里根总统于1982年建立,旨在保护该地区的研究、娱乐和教育。火山爆发后,火山内部的土地基本上自然恢复。虽然人们相信圣海伦斯山将在未来几个世纪的某个时候再次喷发,但这并没有阻止人们前往这座自1986年以来就被允许的纪念碑进行徒步旅行和攀登。

漏出“天窗”的熔岩管,夏威夷火山国家公园 Skylight into an active lava tube, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii (© Tom Schwabel/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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漏出“天窗”的熔岩管,夏威夷火山国家公园 Skylight into an active lava tube, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii (© Tom Schwabel/Tandem Stills + Motion)

世界上最活跃的火 The most active volcano in the world

Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park at 106

The orange glow of a lava tube like the one pictured here is a frequent site on Hawaii's Kilauea, the youngest volcano on one of the youngest islands on Earth. In near constant eruption for the last 40 years, Kilauea is widely considered the most active volcano in the world and is the main attraction at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, which was created on this day in 1916. The park, which was designated an International Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, also includes another active volcano, Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano—Mauna Loa last erupted in 1984. Together, they are among the most studied volcanoes in the world.

The volcanoes of the Big Island of Hawaii offer a real-time glimpse into the ongoing creation of the entire Hawaiian island chain, a process that has been underway for tens of millions of years. Hawaii as we know it owes its existence to a volcanic hotspot on the seafloor. Magma seeps from this hotspot and turns into solid rock. Once enough magma is extruded, the rock breaks the surface of the sea and becomes an island. The island continues to grow until the Pacific tectonic plate moves the island off the hotspot. The hotspot remains stationary, constantly creating new islands. In fact, the next Hawaiian island, named Loihi, is about 20 miles from Hawaii and 3,000 feet below the surface of the ocean. In less than 100,000 years, it is expected to replace the Big Island as the youngest island in the chain, and it too will have its turn at hosting visitors who buy timeshare condos.

Hawaiian religion credits the creation of Hawaii to Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Possessing a fiery temper and a passionate nature, she is said to make her home in the Halema'uma'u caldera here on Kilauea. From her volcano home she controls the flow of lava and frequency of eruptions. According to modern legend, she sometimes wanders near the park as an old woman wearing a red muumuu, with a white dog, as a warning that a new eruption is soon to come.

106号夏威夷火山国家公园

图中所示的橙色熔岩管辉是夏威夷基拉韦厄上的一个常见地点,基拉韦耶岛是地球上最年轻岛屿之一上最年轻的火山。在过去40年中,基拉韦厄火山几乎持续喷发,被广泛认为是世界上最活跃的火山,是1916年创建的夏威夷火山国家公园的主要景点。该公园被指定为国际生物圈保护区和世界遗产,还包括另一座活火山,莫纳罗亚,世界上最大的盾状火山莫纳洛上次喷发是在1984年。加在一起,它们是世界上研究最多的火山之一。

夏威夷大岛上的火山可以实时观察整个夏威夷岛链的形成过程,这一过程已经持续了数千万年。众所周知,夏威夷的存在得益于海底的火山热点。岩浆从这个热点渗出,变成固体岩石。一旦足够的岩浆被挤出,岩石就会冲破海面,变成一个岛屿。该岛继续增长,直到太平洋构造板块将该岛移出热点。热点保持静止,不断形成新的岛屿。事实上,下一个夏威夷岛,名为Loihi,距离夏威夷约20英里,海拔3000英尺。预计在不到10万年的时间里,它将取代大岛,成为这一链条中最年轻的岛屿,轮到它接待购买分时度假公寓的游客。

夏威夷宗教将夏威夷的诞生归功于火与火山女神贝利。她脾气暴躁,生性热情,据说住在基拉韦厄岛的Halema'uma'u火山口。她在火山口的家中控制着熔岩的流动和喷发的频率。根据现代传说,她有时会在公园附近漫步,就像一个穿着红色muumuu的老妇人,带着一只白色的狗,作为新火山爆发即将到来的警告。

菲律宾马荣山的火山口冒烟 Crater glow from Mount Mayon in the Philippines (© Per-Andre Hoffmann/Cavan)

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菲律宾马荣火山口冒烟 Crater glow from Mount Mayon in the Philippines (© Per-Andre Hoffmann/Cavan)

Behold the 'perfect' cone

How far would you have to travel for the 'perfect cone'? Well, probably not too far if you're talking ice cream. But if volcanoes are what you're looking for, you'll have to make your way to Mount Mayon on the Philippine island of Luzon. The glowing lava you see is on the tip of the world's most perfectly shaped, symmetrical volcanic cone, which formed after years of eruptions from what is still an active stratovolcano. Mount Mayon has erupted dozens of times in the past 400 years, and there was a significant eruption as recently as 2018. Even this year, smaller white steam plume emissions and faint crater glow are sometimes visible. Mayon is the most active volcano in an island nation full of active volcanos, and is located inside the UNESCO Albay Biosphere Reserve, as well as the Philippine's Mayon Volcano Natural Park. Despite its active status, tourists still flock to the park to view the unique beauty of this cone shaped spectacle.

请看“完美”圆锥体

为了“完美的圆锥体”,你需要走多远?嗯,如果你说的是冰淇淋,可能不会太远。但是如果你要找的是火山,你就得去菲律宾吕宋上的马荣山。你所看到的炽热的熔岩位于世界上形状最完美、对称的火山锥的顶端,这座火山锥是在多年的喷发后形成的,它仍然是一座活跃的层火山。在过去的400年中,马荣山已经喷发了几十次,最近在2018年发生了一次重大喷发。即使在今年,也可以看到较小的白色蒸汽羽流排放和微弱的火山口辉。马荣火山位于联合国教科文组织阿尔拜生物圈保护区以及菲律宾的马荣火山自然公园内,是一个充满活火山的岛国中最活跃的火山。尽管公园处于活跃状态,游客仍然蜂拥而至,欣赏这一锥形景观的独特之美。

死亡谷国家公园里的优比喜比火山口,加利福尼亚州 Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley National Park, California (© Albert Knapp/Alamy)

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死亡谷国家公园里的优比喜比火山口加利福尼亚州 Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley National Park, California (© Albert Knapp/Alamy)

When Death Valley blew its top

Deep below Death Valley's charred surface, blazing hot magma once gushed up through a geologic fault until it hit groundwater. The magma quickly turned the water to steam, and like a defective subterranean pressure cooker, the Earth's crust blew its top in a ferocious explosion. The hydrovolcanic eruption sent up a mushroom cloud of steam and spewed burnt volcanic cinders for miles. It also left the giant crater seen in this photo and 12 smaller ones spread across the surface.

The Ubehebe Crater (pronounced you-bee-HEE-bee) is a half-mile across and more than 700 feet deep. Geologically speaking, Ubehebe and the other craters here are quite young. A 2016 study concluded that the craters were all formed in a relatively brief series of explosions—a period of days or weeks—about 2,100 years ago. Another eruption could happen, but visitors need not worry about the ground below their feet—seismometers in the region will alert geologists in advance of any future volcanic unrest. A trail around the rim of the crater offers views of the colorful layers of stone along the walls. Adventurous hikers can descend to the bottom, but it's a long slog back out again, especially on a sweltering summer day.

当死亡谷爆发时

在死亡谷烧焦的地表深处,炽热的岩浆曾经通过地质断层喷涌而出,直到触及地下水。岩浆很快将水变成蒸汽,就像一个有缺陷的地下压力锅,地壳在猛烈的爆炸中炸开了顶部。水火山喷发喷出蘑菇状的蒸汽云,喷出燃烧的火灰数英里。它还留下了这张照片中看到的巨大陨石坑,12个较小的陨石坑散布在地表。

Ubehebe火山口(发音为you bee HEE bee)宽半英里,深700多英尺。从地质学的角度来说,乌贝赫比和这里的其他陨石坑都很年轻。2016年的一项研究得出结论,这些陨石坑都是在相对短暂的一系列爆炸中形成的——大约2100年前的几天或几周时间。另一次火山喷发可能会发生,但游客不必担心脚下的地面。该地区的地震仪将在未来的火山动荡之前提醒地质学家。沿着火山口边缘的小径可以看到沿着墙壁的彩色石层。喜欢冒险的徒步旅行者可以爬到水底,但要想再次爬出来还需要很长时间,尤其是在炎热的夏天。

鸟瞰皮纳图博火山湖和山脉,菲律宾波拉克 Aerial view of volcanic Lake Pinatubo and mountains, Porac, Philippines (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

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鸟瞰皮纳图博火山山脉菲律宾波拉克 Aerial view of volcanic Lake Pinatubo and mountains, Porac, Philippines (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

Are you older than this lake?

If you were born before summer 1991, the answer is yes. Sorry if you already felt a bit long in the tooth, but it's true: Before 30 years ago, Lake Pinatubo was just a rumble in Mount Pinatubo's magma-filled belly. It was a calamitous eruption on June 15, 1991—one of the 20th century's most powerful—that blew off Pinatubo's original summit and formed a vast crater, which gradually filled with water as greenery reclaimed the summit.

Located about 50 miles from the Philippines' capital of Manila, the crater was for many years a niche destination for hardy hikers, requiring days of travel to reach. More recently, a 4x4 road and tended hiking trail were added, reducing the rugged journey to a day trip.

你比这个湖大吗?

如果你出生在1991年夏天之前,答案是肯定的。抱歉,如果你已经觉得牙齿有点长了,但这是真的:30年前,皮纳图博湖只是皮纳图博火充满岩浆的肚子里的隆隆声。这是1991年6月15日的一次灾难性喷发,是20世纪最强大的喷发之一,它把皮纳图博最初的山顶吹走,形成了一个巨大的火山口,随着绿色植物对山顶的再生,火山口逐渐充满了水。

这个陨石坑距离菲律宾首都马尼拉大约50英里,多年来一直是耐寒徒步旅行者的利基目的地,需要数天的旅行才能到达。最近,增加了一条4x4公路和徒步小径,将崎岖的旅程缩短为一日游。

2013年正在喷发的埃特纳火山,意大利西西里岛 Mount Etna erupting in 2013, Sicily, Italy (© Wead/Alamy Live News)

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2013年正在喷发的埃特纳火山意大利西西里岛 Mount Etna erupting in 2013, Sicily, Italy (© Wead/Alamy Live News)

A sizzling summit hides in the clouds

Seen here with its explosive summit socked away in the clouds, Mount Etna towers over the Italian isle of Sicily as the tallest volcano in Europe—and maybe the crankiest, given its near-constant eruptions. The island peak has been highly active for perhaps half a million years and can still be counted on for a spectacular eruption every few years. This photograph shows Etna erupting in 2013.

云层中隐藏着一座炙热的

埃特纳火山在意大利西西里上空耸立,是欧洲最高的火山,可能是最古怪的火山,因为它几乎一直在喷发。岛上的山峰已经高度活跃了大约50万年,仍然可以指望每隔几年就有一次壮观的喷发。这张照片显示埃特纳火山在2013年喷发。

亚伊马火山与前景中的智利南洋杉,智利孔吉利奥国家公园 Volcano Llaima with Araucaria trees in the foreground, Conguillío National Park, Chile (© Fotografías Jorge León Cabello/Getty Images)

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亚伊马火山与前景中的智利南洋杉,智利孔吉利奥国家公园 Volcano Llaima with Araucaria trees in the foreground, Conguillío National Park, Chile (© Fotografías Jorge León Cabello/Getty Images)

Fall for Chile

Autumn in Chile varies widely as one travels from the Atacama Desert in the north more than 2,600 miles south to the tip of Tierra del Fuego. Around halfway between these two extremes you can find Conguillío National Park and the volcano Llaima at Chile's center. In March, at the start of the Southern Hemisphere's autumn, the leaves of the deciduous forest begin to turn color and fall, and the native Chilean pine trees (Araucarias) stand out even more strikingly.

Because of their distinctive appearance and the fact that they thrive in a wide range of climates, the trees became a favorite of botanists in the 19th century, who transported and cultivated them in many temperate climates around the world. The 'monkey puzzle' trees got their common English name in the 1850s when English barrister Charles Austin observed that 'It would be a puzzle for a monkey to climb that.' Even more amazing is that these trees can live over a thousand years and are themselves living fossils, descended from a lineage stretching back 260 million years to the time of the dinosaurs.

爱上智利

智利的秋天变化很大,人们从北部的阿塔卡马沙漠向南行驶2600多英里,到达火地的顶端。在这两个极端的中间,你可以看到智利国家公园和智利中心的拉伊马火。今年3月,南半球季伊始,落叶林的叶开始变色、飘落,智利本土的松树(Araucarias)更加引人注目。

由于其独特的外观和在各种气候条件下茁壮成长的事实,这些树在19世纪成为植物学家的最爱,他们在世界各地的许多温带气候条件下运输和栽培它们。19世纪50年代,英国大律师查尔斯·奥斯汀(Charles Austin)指出,猴子爬上那棵树将是一个谜,于是“猴子拼图”树就有了共同的英文名称。更令人惊奇的是,这些树能活上一千多年,而且本身就是活化石,其世系可追溯到公元前2.6亿年恐龙。

波来古市附近的Chu Dang Ya火山,越南嘉来 Chu Dang Ya near Pleiku in Gia Lai Province, Vietnam (© Quang Ngoc Nguyen/Alamy)

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波来古市附近的Chu Dang Ya火山越南嘉来 Chu Dang Ya near Pleiku in Gia Lai Province, Vietnam (© Quang Ngoc Nguyen/Alamy)

A sleeping green giant

We're looking down on Chu Dang Ya, an extinct volcano that last erupted millions of years ago. Located in the Gia Lai Province in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, Chu Dang Ya, means 'wild ginger' or perhaps 'tough ginger root' in the local Jarai language. The volcano provides fertile soil for crops such as pumpkins, sweet potatoes, taro, and more. Among the best times to visit this rural gem is at the beginning of the rainy season, in late April and early May, and as the rains wind down in November. That's when Chu Dang Ya takes it up a notch—its hillsides erupt with sunflower and other wildflower blooms along roadways, dirt paths, and fields.

一个沉睡的绿色巨人

我们正在俯瞰楚荡崖,一座上一次喷发于数百万年前的死火。楚当崖位于越南中部高地的嘉莱省,在当地的加莱语中,意思是“野姜”或“坚韧的姜根”。火山为南瓜、红薯、芋头等作物提供了肥沃的土壤。在雨季的开始、4月下旬和5月初,以及11月的雨季,参观这块乡村宝石的最佳时机之一。就在这时,楚当崖把它带上了一个台阶,山坡上开满了向日葵和其他野,它们沿着公路、土路和田野盛开。

一艘游船经过时熔岩流撞击水面产生爆炸,夏威夷火山国家公园 A lava flow hits water to create an explosion as a tourist boat passes, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (© Patrick Kelley/Getty Images)

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一艘游经过时熔岩流撞击水面产生爆炸,夏威夷火山国家公园 A lava flow hits water to create an explosion as a tourist boat passes, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (© Patrick Kelley/Getty Images)

Where fire meets water

'Keep your distance' might be the mantra for 2020, but here at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the 50th state's 'Big Island,' it's always been good advice. Especially so for the passengers on this tour boat as they witness a red-hot lava flow hitting the chilly ocean with a tremendous explosion of steam.

We're visiting to mark the anniversary of the park's founding on August 1, 1916. Established some 34 years before Hawaii statehood, Hawaii Volcanoes was the first national park in a US territory. It's centered around two volcanic systems: Mauna Loa, one of the world's most massive volcanoes, and the highly active Kīlauea, which erupted continually from 1983 until an explosive 2018 eruption that calmed it for the time being.

堪察加半岛上的扎尔巴奇克火山,俄罗斯 Tolbachik volcanic complex on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (© Egor Vlasov/Shutterstock)

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堪察加半岛上的扎尔巴奇克火山俄罗斯 Tolbachik volcanic complex on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (© Egor Vlasov/Shutterstock)

Welcome to the Ring of Fire

Today we're visiting the pair of volcanoes known as Tolbachik—the flat-topped Plosky (Flat) Tolbachik on the left of our image, and the majestic Ostry (Sharp) Tolbachik on the right, which soars 12,080 feet above the Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia. These are just two of approximately 160 volcanoes that dot the region; 29 of them, including the Tolbachik complex, are still active. In fact, there is so much volcanic activity here that UNESCO calls the peninsula 'one of the most outstanding volcanic regions in the world,' and has designated it a World Heritage Site.

The Kamchatka Peninsula juts out from the Russian mainland between the Sea of Okhotsk to the east and the Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea to the west. The sparsely populated peninsula makes up the western edge of the Ring of Fire, a chain of volcanoes along the Pacific Ocean that account for 90% of the world's seismic activity. Wild, remote, and primal, Kamchatka is home to an abundance of wildlife: arctic fox, tundra wolves, reindeer, lynx, huge Chukotka moose, and the Kamchatka brown bear that can tip the scales at 1,400 pounds.