一个酷炫的凝灰岩火山口 A 'tuff'-tastic crater
Jeju Island, South Korea
The South Korean island of Jeju is full of wonders. If you don't have a chance to visit its volcanic landscape, ancient stone statues, waterfalls, and rocky coastline, you can dive into the island's fascinating chronicles from the comfort of your computer. The star of today's image, Seongsan Ilchulbong (Sunrise Peak), is the island's rare tuff cone formation, created by an underwater volcanic eruption about 5,000 years ago. Tuff cones are also called ash cones, referring to the accumulated ash settling in a cone formation after the lava's forceful explosion. Seongsan Ilchulbong was added to the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List in 2007.
为了每个人，保护地球的生物多样性 Protecting Earth's biodiversity for everyone
International Day for Biodiversity
It’s International Day for Biological Diversity, a day to celebrate the variety of life on Earth in all its forms, from bacteria, plants, and animals to entire ecosystems like coral reefs and rainforests. All living things within each ecosystem are interconnected, and we rely on healthy ecosystems for our water, food, medicines, clothes, energy, and shelter. But many species are threatened with extinction and ecosystems are being destroyed, which mean Earth’s rich biodiversity is in decline.
Our homepage image shows Costa Rica’s Monteverde Cloud Forest, home to about half of all species in the country, including more than 2,500 types of plants and 400 bird species. Here you’ll find jaguars and pumas living alongside sloths, howler monkeys, and the endangered resplendent quetzal. This forest alone represents about 2.5% of the world’s biodiversity, the perfect ambassador for today’s event, which calls on us to rethink our relationship with nature and work to be better stewards of the Earth.
从胜利到欢庆 From victory to festivity
(Benito Pablo Juárez Garca) 于 1862
年宣布这一节日为国定假日。今天，普埃布拉人民通过游行、演讲和战斗重演来庆祝。图中的 普埃布拉天主堂又称济世圣母教堂(Nuestra Señora
de los Remedios )在普埃布拉战役爆发时已经有将近 300 年的历史。
Cinco de Mayo
Contrary to what many people believe, Cinco de Mayo is not Mexico's Independence Day, which is celebrated on September 16. Instead, May 5 marks Mexico's victory over better-equipped French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. Although the French Empire would counterattack and take the city a year later, the unexpected victory was a morale boost which still has symbolic significance. While in the US, Cinco de Mayo is a popular festival celebrating Mexican American culture, celebrations in Mexico are relatively quiet and focused mostly on Puebla.
In Mexico, the celebration became known as Battle of Puebla Day after President Benito Juárez declared it a national holiday in 1862. Today, the people of Puebla celebrate with parades, speeches, and battle reenactments. The Church of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios in Puebla, pictured here, was already nearly 300 years old when the 1862 battle was fought. And human history is just the blink of an eye to ancient Popocatépetl, the smoking volcano which towers over Puebla in the background of our homepage image.
这座缥缈的山在哪里？ Where is this ethereal mountain?
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia
Welcome to the spectacular Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, on the Indonesian island of Java, famous for stunning sunrises and its dramatic landscape. Here, a massive ancient volcano erupted thousands of years ago and inside its collapsed crater, more volcanoes formed.
To the left, spewing smoke and steam, is Mount Bromo, one of the most iconic sites in East Java, which has erupted at least four times in the last 20 years. In the forefront of the picture, with trees creeping up the sides, is Mount Batok, which is no longer active, while Java's highest mountain (and active volcano) Semeru, is visible in the background. The Tengger Sand Sea, a vast area of fine volcanic sand, wraps around five volcanoes inside the caldera. No wonder this massive national park is sometimes referred to as the land of sand and fire.
40年的休养生息 40 years of recovery
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, Washington
Today is an important day in American history. We're standing on the Boundary Trail at Johnston Ridge in the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Forty years ago today, 110,000 acres within Gifford Pinchot National Forest was set aside to memorialize the deadliest and most destructive volcanic eruption in the United States. For nearly nine hours on May 18th, 1980, the Mount St. Helens erupted, forever changing the Washington landscape. The volcanic event started at roughly 8:30 on a Sunday morning with a 5.1 magnitude earthquake. This triggered what is known as a 'lateral eruption,' which means the lava blast comes out of the side of the volcano, rather than the top. The initial blast shaved more than a thousand feet off the mountain's elevation, resulting in a massive avalanche and the destruction of about 150 square miles of the surrounding forest. When the event ended, 57 people had died, 200 homes and almost 200 miles of nearby highway had been destroyed.
The monument was established by President Ronald Reagan in 1982 to preserve the area for research, recreation, and education. The land inside has been left to mostly recover naturally since the eruption. While it's believed that Mount St. Helens will erupt again sometime within the next few centuries, that has not deterred people from hiking and climbing at the monument, which has been allowed since 1986.
世界上最活跃的火山 The most active volcano in the world
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park at 106
The orange glow of a lava tube like the one pictured here is a frequent site on Hawaii's Kilauea, the youngest volcano on one of the youngest islands on Earth. In near constant eruption for the last 40 years, Kilauea is widely considered the most active volcano in the world and is the main attraction at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, which was created on this day in 1916. The park, which was designated an International Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, also includes another active volcano, Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano—Mauna Loa last erupted in 1984. Together, they are among the most studied volcanoes in the world.
The volcanoes of the Big Island of Hawaii offer a real-time glimpse into the ongoing creation of the entire Hawaiian island chain, a process that has been underway for tens of millions of years. Hawaii as we know it owes its existence to a volcanic hotspot on the seafloor. Magma seeps from this hotspot and turns into solid rock. Once enough magma is extruded, the rock breaks the surface of the sea and becomes an island. The island continues to grow until the Pacific tectonic plate moves the island off the hotspot. The hotspot remains stationary, constantly creating new islands. In fact, the next Hawaiian island, named Loihi, is about 20 miles from Hawaii and 3,000 feet below the surface of the ocean. In less than 100,000 years, it is expected to replace the Big Island as the youngest island in the chain, and it too will have its turn at hosting visitors who buy timeshare condos.
Hawaiian religion credits the creation of Hawaii to Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Possessing a fiery temper and a passionate nature, she is said to make her home in the Halema'uma'u caldera here on Kilauea. From her volcano home she controls the flow of lava and frequency of eruptions. According to modern legend, she sometimes wanders near the park as an old woman wearing a red muumuu, with a white dog, as a warning that a new eruption is soon to come.
Behold the 'perfect' cone
How far would you have to travel for the 'perfect cone'? Well, probably not too far if you're talking ice cream. But if volcanoes are what you're looking for, you'll have to make your way to Mount Mayon on the Philippine island of Luzon. The glowing lava you see is on the tip of the world's most perfectly shaped, symmetrical volcanic cone, which formed after years of eruptions from what is still an active stratovolcano. Mount Mayon has erupted dozens of times in the past 400 years, and there was a significant eruption as recently as 2018. Even this year, smaller white steam plume emissions and faint crater glow are sometimes visible. Mayon is the most active volcano in an island nation full of active volcanos, and is located inside the UNESCO Albay Biosphere Reserve, as well as the Philippine's Mayon Volcano Natural Park. Despite its active status, tourists still flock to the park to view the unique beauty of this cone shaped spectacle.
When Death Valley blew its top
Deep below Death Valley's charred surface, blazing hot magma once gushed up through a geologic fault until it hit groundwater. The magma quickly turned the water to steam, and like a defective subterranean pressure cooker, the Earth's crust blew its top in a ferocious explosion. The hydrovolcanic eruption sent up a mushroom cloud of steam and spewed burnt volcanic cinders for miles. It also left the giant crater seen in this photo and 12 smaller ones spread across the surface.
The Ubehebe Crater (pronounced you-bee-HEE-bee) is a half-mile across and more than 700 feet deep. Geologically speaking, Ubehebe and the other craters here are quite young. A 2016 study concluded that the craters were all formed in a relatively brief series of explosions—a period of days or weeks—about 2,100 years ago. Another eruption could happen, but visitors need not worry about the ground below their feet—seismometers in the region will alert geologists in advance of any future volcanic unrest. A trail around the rim of the crater offers views of the colorful layers of stone along the walls. Adventurous hikers can descend to the bottom, but it's a long slog back out again, especially on a sweltering summer day.
Ubehebe火山口（发音为you bee HEE bee）宽半英里，深700多英尺。从地质学的角度来说，乌贝赫比和这里的其他陨石坑都很年轻。2016年的一项研究得出结论，这些陨石坑都是在相对短暂的一系列爆炸中形成的——大约2100年前的几天或几周时间。另一次火山喷发可能会发生，但游客不必担心脚下的地面。该地区的地震仪将在未来的火山动荡之前提醒地质学家。沿着火山口边缘的小径可以看到沿着墙壁的彩色石层。喜欢冒险的徒步旅行者可以爬到水底，但要想再次爬出来还需要很长时间，尤其是在炎热的夏天。
Are you older than this lake?
If you were born before summer 1991, the answer is yes. Sorry if you already felt a bit long in the tooth, but it's true: Before 30 years ago, Lake Pinatubo was just a rumble in Mount Pinatubo's magma-filled belly. It was a calamitous eruption on June 15, 1991—one of the 20th century's most powerful—that blew off Pinatubo's original summit and formed a vast crater, which gradually filled with water as greenery reclaimed the summit.
Located about 50 miles from the Philippines' capital of Manila, the crater was for many years a niche destination for hardy hikers, requiring days of travel to reach. More recently, a 4x4 road and tended hiking trail were added, reducing the rugged journey to a day trip.
A sizzling summit hides in the clouds
Seen here with its explosive summit socked away in the clouds, Mount Etna towers over the Italian isle of Sicily as the tallest volcano in Europe—and maybe the crankiest, given its near-constant eruptions. The island peak has been highly active for perhaps half a million years and can still be counted on for a spectacular eruption every few years. This photograph shows Etna erupting in 2013.