标签 墨西哥 下的文章

蓝色龙舌兰田,墨西哥哈利斯科州龙舌兰酒产区 Tree in blue agave field in the tequila producing region near Atotonilco, Jalisco, Mexico (© Brian Overcast/Alamy)

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蓝色龙舌兰田,墨西哥哈利斯科州龙舌兰酒产区 Tree in blue agave field in the tequila producing region near Atotonilco, Jalisco, Mexico (© Brian Overcast/Alamy)

这种蓝色多汁的植物就像黄金一样珍贵 This blue succulent is as good as gold here

Cinco de Mayo

Many celebrations of Cinco de Mayo, or May 5, owe a debt to these rolling fields of blue agave, or agave Azul, the source material required to make genuine tequila. The distilled spirit is to Mexico what Scotch whisky is to Scotland and sake to Japan. Tequila is also the base ingredient in the beloved margarita cocktail certain to be served in abundance today.

Blue agave is native to Jalisco, a coastal state of Mexico, where it grows head-high in the rich sandy soils of Jalisco's highlands. Its flowers are pollinated, not by bees or birds, but by the Mexican long-nosed bat, adding to this succulent's mystique. The bat's favorite food is the pollen and nectar of agave. Tequila is made by roasting the heart of the plant and then crushing or squeezing it to release a sugary, clear liquid called aguamiel, which translates to honey water. That liquid is distilled to produce tequila. Authentic tequila, by law, can be made only in Jalisco and a few municipalities outside it, and its authenticity is protected by trade agreements.

Tequila's association with Cinco de Mayo in the US probably owes to the fact that Americans observe the day with an upbeat celebration of Mexican culture in general. Cinco de Mayo is sometimes mistaken for Mexico's Independence Day, which is actually on September 16. In Mexico, the holiday commemorates the Mexican army's victory over the French Empire in the Battle of Puebla in 1862. Whatever side of the border you're on today, if you toast the table with a glass of tequila, take a moment to remember the azure fields where it all started.

五月五日节

许多庆祝五月五日(Cinco de Mayo)的活动都要归功于这些蓝色龙舌兰(又称龙舌兰蓝)的滚滚田野,这是制作真正龙舌兰酒所需的原料。蒸馏酒之于墨西哥,就像苏格兰威士忌之于苏格兰,日本清酒之于日本。龙舌兰酒也是深受喜爱的玛格丽塔鸡尾酒的基本成分,今天一定会有大量的玛格丽塔鸡尾酒供应。

蓝色龙舌兰原产于墨西哥沿海州哈利斯科,生长在哈利斯科高地肥沃的沙质土壤中。它的不是由蜜蜂或鸟类授粉,而是由墨西哥长鼻蝙蝠授粉,这增加了这种多汁植物的神秘性。蝙蝠最喜欢的食物是龙舌兰的花粉和花蜜。龙舌兰酒的制作方法是将植物的心脏烘烤,然后压碎或挤压,释放出一种称为aguamiel的含糖透明液体,转化为蜂蜜水。这种液体经过蒸馏制成龙舌兰酒。根据法律规定,正宗的龙舌兰酒只能在哈利斯科和其他几个城市生产,其真实性受到贸易协议的保护。

龙舌兰酒与美国的Cinco de Mayo酒的联系可能要归功于这样一个事实:美国人在庆祝这一天时,通常都会对墨西哥文化进行乐观的庆祝。Cinco de Mayo有时被误认为是墨西哥的独立日,实际上是9月16日。在墨西哥,这个节日是为了纪念墨西哥军队在1862年普埃布拉战役中战胜法兰西帝国。无论你今天身处何方,如果你用一杯龙舌兰酒来敬酒,花点时间回忆一下这一切开始的蔚蓝田野。

漫天飞舞的黑脉金斑蝶,墨西哥 Monarch butterflies in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Angangueo, Mexico (© Sylvain Cordier/Minden Pictures)

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漫天飞舞的黑脉金斑蝶,墨西哥 Monarch butterflies in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Angangueo, Mexico (© Sylvain Cordier/Minden Pictures)

Monarch butterflies in Angangueo, Mexico

Every year, one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in Mexico takes place in the forested mountains west of Mexico City. Between mid-January and late March, colonies of monarch butterflies migrate here from colder northern climates to find warmth and begin their breeding season. These huge flying colonies can contain as many as 20 million monarchs, which make use of air currents to travel as far as 100 nautical miles per day.

Upon arrival in the Mexican state of Michoacán, they'll settle into the forests of fir trees like those shown here, before finding their way to milkweed plants to mate and lay their eggs. The eggs will hatch after just a few days, leaving the offspring to feast on the milkweed before eventually transforming into the next generation of adult butterflies. Once the winter breeding season is over, the newly hatched monarchs will start the annual migration cycle over again, taking to the air for the long trek back north.

墨西哥Angangueo的帝王蝶

每年,墨西哥最壮观的自然现象之一发生在墨西哥城西部的森林山脉。1月中旬至3月下旬,成群的帝王蝶从寒冷的北方气候迁徙到这里,寻找温暖,开始繁殖季节。这些巨大的飞行殖民地可以容纳多达2000万只帝王,它们利用气流每天飞行100海里。

抵达墨西哥米却肯州后,它们会在这里所示的冷杉林中安顿下来,然后再找到马利筋植物交配产卵。卵在几天后就会孵化出来,让后代享用马利筋,然后最终转化为下一代成年蝴蝶。一旦季繁殖季节结束,新孵化的帝王将重新开始每年的迁徙周期,飞到空中进行漫长的向北跋涉。

墨西哥城贝拉斯艺术宫 Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City (© Lukas Bischoff Photograph/Shutterstock)

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墨西哥城贝拉斯艺术宫 Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City (© Lukas Bischoff Photograph/Shutterstock)

A cry for independence

The Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City has hosted art exhibits, music and dance performances, and much more since its opening. The decadent Art Nouveau building opened in 1934 but was originally planned to open for Mexico's 100th birthday years earlier, in 1916. To get that story, we must travel 200 miles from this spot and back in time even further than the early 20th century.

On September 16, 1810, in Dolores, Mexico, the 'Cry of Dolores' rang out, signaling a call to arms. The Mexican War of Independence would last 11 years, finally breaking the country free from Spain. Though the war also ended in the month of September, it is the start of the conflict—September 16—that Mexicans celebrate as their Independence Day.

要求独立的呼声

墨西哥城的贝拉斯艺术宫自开业以来举办了艺术展览、音乐和舞蹈表演等活动。这座颓废的新艺术建筑于1934年开业,但最初计划在1916年墨西哥100岁生日时开业。为了得到这个故事,我们必须从这个地方走200英里,回到比20世纪初更远的时间。

1810年9月16日,在墨西哥的多洛雷斯,响起了“多洛雷斯的呐喊”,发出了武装的信号。墨西哥独立战争将持续11年,最终使该国脱离西班牙。虽然战争也在9月份结束,但墨西哥人庆祝的独立日是9月16日冲突的开始。

加利福尼亚湾中数千条杰克鱼成群游动,墨西哥普尔莫角国家公园 Thousands of jack fish swimming together at Cabo Pulmo National Park, Sea of Cortez, Baja California, Mexico (© Christian Vizl/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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加利福尼亚中数千条杰克鱼成群游动,墨西哥普尔莫角国家公园 Thousands of jack fish swimming together at Cabo Pulmo National Park, Sea of Cortez, Baja California, Mexico (© Christian Vizl/Tandem Stills + Motion)

A day for our oceans

To celebrate World Oceans Day, we're swimming through a shoal of jack fish just off the coast of Baja, California, in Cabo Pulmo National Park. This Mexican marine park in the Sea of Cortez is home to the northernmost and oldest coral reef on the west coast of North America, estimated to be about 20,000 years old. Jacks are clearly plentiful here, but divers and snorkelers in Cabo Pulmo can also come across many other species of fish and marine mammals, including many varieties of sharks, whales, dolphins, tortoises, and manta rays.

For this year's World Oceans Day, the UN chose the theme 'The Ocean: Life & Livelihoods,' to raise awareness of the nearly 3 billion people worldwide who depend on oceans for their food and way of life. The residents of Cabo Pulmo know a little about this—to help revitalize their previously unprotected and overfished waters, the Mexican government turned Cabo Pulmo into a national park in 1995. But more controversially, they also banned fishing, a big deal in an area where many residents lived off the food they caught by hand. The preservation efforts paid off, though—researchers say the park experienced a 460% increase in the number of fish living in park waters between 1999 and 2009, turning Cabo Pulmo one of the world's most robust marine reserves. Now, many residents who once relied on fishing have been able to move into jobs in ecotourism or other vocations supporting the park.

海洋的一天

为了庆祝世界海洋日,我们正在加利福尼亚州巴哈海岸附近的卡波普尔莫国家公园游泳。这座位于科尔特斯海的墨西哥海洋公园是北美洲西海岸最北、最古老的珊瑚礁的所在地,据估计大约有2万年的历史。杰克在这里显然很丰富,但在卡波普尔莫潜水员和潜水者也可以遇到许多其他种类的鱼类和海洋哺乳动物,包括许多种类的鲨鱼、鱼、海豚、乌龟和蝠鲼。

今年的世界海洋日,联合国选择了“海洋:生命与生计”这一主题,以提高全世界近30亿以海洋为食物和生活方式的人们的认识。卡波普尔莫的居民对此略知一二,为了帮助恢复他们以前未受保护和过度捕捞的水域,墨西哥政府在1995年将卡波普尔莫变成了一个国家公园。但更具争议的是,他们还禁止捕鱼,这在一个许多居民靠手工捕捞的食物为生的地区是一件大事。保护工作取得了成效,不过研究人员说,1999年至2009年间,公园水域的鱼类数量增加了460%,使卡波普尔莫成为世界上最强大的海洋保护区之一。现在,许多曾经依赖捕鱼的居民已经能够从事生态旅游或其他支持公园的职业。

乔鲁拉大金字塔,墨西哥乔鲁拉 The Great Pyramid of Cholula, in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico (© mauritius images GmbH/Alamy)

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乔鲁拉金字塔墨西哥乔鲁拉 The Great Pyramid of Cholula, in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico (© mauritius images GmbH/Alamy)

The birthplace of Cinco de Mayo

The church we see on the grassy hill was built after Hernan Cortez and his Spanish army conquered Cholula one October day in 1519. The Spanish ravaged the holy city that day, murdering 10% of its population and burning down the many pyramids that dotted the area. But just underneath this church, buried for centuries, lay an ancient secret never discovered by the Spanish. It's the largest pyramid in the world, the Great Pyramid of Cholula, so large its enormous base would span several Olympic-sized swimming pools.

It's apt then, that we visit this holy area on Cinco de Mayo. Just 20 miles away near the city of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, another battle was waged, this time by the Mexicans against French invaders. By some miracle, the vastly outnumbered and outarmed Mexicans won the Battle of Puebla. And so today, we in the United States join those in this part of Mexico to celebrate a win over would-be conquerors.

Cinco de Mayo的诞生地

我们在长满青草的上看到的教堂是在1519年10月的一天,赫尔南·科尔特斯和他的西班牙军队征服了乔鲁拉之后建造的。西班牙人那天蹂躏了圣城,杀害了10%的人口,烧毁了遍布该地区的许多金字塔。但就在这座埋葬了几个世纪的教堂下面,隐藏着一个从未被西班牙人发现的古老秘密。它是世界上最大的金字塔,乔鲁拉大金字塔,如此之大,其巨大的基础将跨越几个奥运会大小的游泳池。

那么,我们去参观辛科德梅奥的这片圣地是恰当的。1862年5月5日,就在20英里外的普埃布拉市附近,墨西哥人发动了另一场战争,这次是对法国侵略者的战争。奇迹般的是,人数众多、装备精良的墨西哥人赢得了普埃布拉战役。所以今天,我们美国和墨西哥这一地区的人们一起庆祝战胜潜在征服者的胜利。

大群的芒基蝠鲼跃出水面,墨西哥加利福尼亚湾 Large school of Munk's pygmy devil rays from the air, Gulf of California, Mexico (© Mark Carwardine/Minden Pictures)

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大群的芒基蝠鲼跃出水面,墨西哥加利福尼亚 Large school of Munk's pygmy devil rays from the air, Gulf of California, Mexico (© Mark Carwardine/Minden Pictures)

Rays on parade

The feeding frenzy is on! Each spring and fall, the waters off Mexico's Baja California peninsula become the perfect place to spot Munk's devil rays in massive schools like this one. Unlike stingrays (and perhaps the devil), devil rays lack fearsome pointy tails. In fact, these giants—whose wingspans can reach about 9 feet—are pretty gentle all around, feeding mainly on plankton. And for them, mealtime is party time: During huge devil ray gatherings like this, rays are seen continually bursting out of the water and landing with loud bellyflops.

射线在游行

喂食狂潮开始了!每年春天和天,墨西哥下加利福尼亚半岛附近的水域都会成为在像这样的大型学校里发现芒克魔鬼鱼的最佳地点。不像黄貂鱼(也许还有魔鬼),魔鬼鱼没有可怕的尖尾巴。事实上,这些翼展能达到9英尺左右的巨型生物四周都很温和,主要以浮游生物为食。对他们来说,进餐时间是聚会时间:在这样的大型魔鬼鱼聚会上,可以看到鱼不断地从水里迸发出来,并带着响亮的肚脐落地。

一个气球在特奥蒂瓦坎日出时飞越太阳金字塔,墨西哥气球在特奥蒂瓦坎日出时飞越太阳金字塔 A balloon flies over the Pyramid of the Sun at sunrise in Teotihuacan, MexicoA balloon flies over the Pyramid of the Sun at sunrise in Teotihuacan, Mexico (©

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一个气球在特奥蒂瓦坎日出时飞越太阳金字塔墨西哥气球在特奥蒂瓦坎日出时飞越太阳金字塔 A balloon flies over the Pyramid of the Sun at sunrise in Teotihuacan, Mexico (© Marco Ugarte/AP Photo)

Ringing in the New Year at Teotihuacan

If the Aztecs had hot air balloons, they may well have greeted the new year like this—floating above the massive Sun Pyramid at sunrise today, the first day of the year according to the Aztec calendar. Also known as Yancuic Xihuitl, the Aztec New Year is still celebrated by some Indigenous Nahua communities here in central Mexico with songs, dances, and the flames of 'ocote' (pitch-pine) candles. Dancers wear colorful traditional costumes topped by quetzal feather headdresses, and celebrants greet the New Year by making loud noises with seashells, just as Aztecs did centuries ago. It's one of the many expressions of pre-Columbian tradition that managed to survive the Spanish conquest and modern erosion of Indigenous customs.

The Sun Pyramid is the largest structure in the ancient city that Aztecs called Teotihuacan (which means, roughly, 'birthplace of the gods'). The 8-square-mile site also contains other important pyramids, plazas, temples, palaces, and a complex network of underground tunnels. As grand a city as it once was, when the Aztecs arrived here in the 1400s, Teotihuacan had been abandoned for centuries. Its precise origins are a mystery, but it was first built by an unknown civilization sometime around 400 BCE. By 400 CE, Teotihuacan had become a center of industry and trade, the largest and most powerful city in the Americas and probably the sixth largest in the world. But by around 550 CE, its major monuments were sacked and deliberately burned, the magnificent pyramids and temples deserted—at least until the Aztecs arrived.

在特奥提华肯新年钟声响起

如果阿兹特克人有热气球的话,他们很可能在今天日出的时候,也就是阿兹特克日历上一年的第一天,像这样漂浮在巨大的太阳金字塔上迎接新年。阿兹特克新年也被称为Yancuic Xihuitl,墨西哥中部的一些土著Nahua社区仍然用歌声、舞蹈和“ocote”(沥青松)蜡烛的火焰来庆祝。舞者们穿着色彩鲜艳的传统服装,头上戴着羽绒头饰,庆祝者用贝壳发出响亮的声音迎接新年,就像几个世纪前阿兹特克人所做的那样。这是许多前哥伦布传统的表达方式之一,这些传统在西班牙征服和现代土著习俗的侵蚀下得以幸存。

太阳金字塔是古城中最大的建筑,阿兹特克人称之为特奥提瓦坎(大致意思是“神的诞生地”)。这个8平方英里的遗址还包括其他重要的金字塔、广场庙、宫殿和复杂的地下隧道网络。当阿兹特克人在14世纪来到这里时,特奥提瓦坎曾经是一座宏伟的城市,但它已经被遗弃了几个世纪。它的确切起源是个谜,但它最初是由公元前400年左右的一个未知文明建造的。到公元400年,特奥蒂瓦坎已经成为一个工业和贸易中心,美洲最大和最强大的城市,可能是世界第六大城市。但到公元前550年左右,它的主要纪念碑被洗劫一空,并被蓄意烧毁,宏伟的金字塔和寺庙被遗弃,至少直到阿兹特克人到来。

被丛林包围着的玛雅古城卡拉克穆尔遗址,墨西哥坎佩切 Ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Calakmul surrounded by the jungle, Campeche, Mexico (© Alfredo Matus/Shutterstock)

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被丛林包围着的玛雅古城卡拉克穆尔遗址墨西哥坎佩切 Ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Calakmul surrounded by the jungle, Campeche, Mexico (© Alfredo Matus/Shutterstock)

The ruins of a Mayan superpower

Deep in the jungle of southern Mexico lay the ruins of a city that thrived for centuries before it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago. Calakmul was once one of the two dueling superpowers—along with Tikal—of the Classical Mayan civilization. At its height, around 1,200 years ago, the city of Calakmul had a population of about 50,000 people, but the kingdom as a whole numbered more than 1.5 million. Archaeologists have uncovered 6,750 structures here—the largest is this pyramid temple, called, simply, 'Structure 2.' It's one of the tallest and most massive remaining structures from that highly advanced culture. The ruins of the city proper cover nearly eight square miles in the jungle and the kingdom once ruled over settlements as far as 90 miles away.

All the more amazing, then, that it was apparently lost to history until an American botanist named Cyrus L. Lundell discovered it when flying over the jungle on a survey of the area in December 1931. A few expeditions were sent to explore it over the next few years, but it went largely unstudied until the 1980s. Calakmul is now recognized as one of the most important archeological sites in southern Mexico.

玛雅超级大国的废墟

在墨西哥南部的丛林深处,有一座城市在1000多年前被遗弃之前,已经繁荣了几个世纪。卡拉克穆尔曾是古典玛雅文明的两个决斗超级大国之一,与提卡尔一起。大约1200年前的鼎盛时期,卡拉克穆尔市的人口约为5万人,但王国整体人口超过150万。考古学家在这里发现了6750座建筑——最大的是这座金字塔神庙,简单地说,叫做"结构2"。它是高度先进文化中最高和最具大规模剩余结构之一。这座城市的废墟覆盖了丛林中近8平方英里的面积,王国曾经统治着90英里外的定居点。

更令人惊奇的是,它显然被历史所遗忘,直到1931年12月一位名叫赛勒斯·伦德尔的美国植物学家在一次对该地区的勘测中飞越丛林时发现了它。在接下来的几年里,一些探险队被派去探索它,但直到20世纪80年代它才被广泛研究。卡拉克穆尔现在被认为是墨西哥南部最重要的考古遗址之一。卡拉克穆尔现在被公认为墨西哥南部最重要的考古遗址之一。

瓜纳华托,墨西哥 Guanajuato, Mexico (© AI NISHINO/Alamy)

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瓜纳华托墨西哥 Guanajuato, Mexico (© AI NISHINO/Alamy)

It's Independence Day in Mexico

In honor of today's Independence Day holiday in Mexico, our homepage comes from the state of Guanajuato—where the country's battle for independence first began. The conflict started with the 'Cry of Delores,' an event on September 16, 1810, when priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang the church bell in the nearby town of Delores and called for a revolt to free Mexico from Spanish control. His call to arms triggered the formation of an insurgency that marched onward to San Miguel and then to the city of Guanajuato (featured on our homepage). The ensuing conflict spanned more than a decade, culminating with Mexico finally breaking free from Spanish rule in 1821.

Since then, the 'Cry of Delores' has come to symbolize the very idea of Mexican independence. Each year on the eve of Independence Day, the president of Mexico re-enacts the call to arms from the balcony of the National Palace in Mexico City, while ringing the same bell that Hidalgo used that day on September 16, 1810.