标签 海岸 下的文章

楚科奇海的浮游植物水华,美国阿拉斯加州海岸附近 Blooms of phytoplankton in the Chukchi Sea off the coast of Alaska (© Norman Kuring/Kathryn Hansen/U.S. Geological Survey/NASA)

发布于 , 70 次浏览

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楚科奇海的浮游植物水华,美国阿拉斯加海岸附近 Blooms of phytoplankton in the Chukchi Sea off the coast of Alaska (© Norman Kuring/Kathryn Hansen/U.S. Geological Survey/NASA)

什么生长得这样茂盛? What's blooming so brightly?

楚科奇海浮游植物的大量繁殖

在这张酷酷的照片中,数百种深浅的蓝色被大理石镶嵌在一起。不,这不是一件现代艺术作品,它是大自然的杰作。这是一张卫星照片,照片中的浮游植物在阿拉斯加附近盛开,凉爽、咸的楚科奇海与靠近海岸的温暖、新鲜的海水混合在一起。

但究竟什么是浮游植物?它们是微小的太阳能生物,漂浮在海面附近,随洋流漂流。事实上,它们的名字来源于希腊语中植物的“phyton”和流浪者或漂泊者的“planktos”。对于生活在海洋和口的各种生物来说,浮游植物既美味又营养,对地球上的每一个人都至关重要:浮游植物的合作用约占世界光合作用的一半,是吸收二氧化碳和释放氧气的太阳能过程。

今天我们谈论浮游植物是为了纪念地球科学周,这是一个鼓励我们所有人学习甚至献身于地球科学的国际活动。今年的主题是“地球科学促进可持续发展世界”,强调科学在维持我们的星球上的作用。所以,是时候掸掉显微镜上的灰尘,参观当地的科学博物馆,或者也许只是了解更多关于美丽的旋转浮游植物的知识。

Blooms of phytoplankton in the Chukchi Sea

Hundreds of shades of blue are marbled together in this cool shot. No, it's not a work of modern art, it's right off the brush of nature. This is a satellite photo of phytoplankton blooming near Alaska as the cool, salty Chukchi Sea mingles with warmer, fresher water closer to shore.

But just what are phytoplankton? They're microscopic sun-powered organisms that float near the surface of the ocean, drifting with the currents. In fact, their name derives from the Greek 'phyton' for plant and 'planktos' for wanderer or drifter. Delicious and nutritious to various creatures living in oceans and estuaries, they're also vital to everyone on Earth: Phytoplankton are responsible for about half of the world's photosynthesis, the sun-powered process that takes in carbon dioxide and releases oxygen.

We're talking phytoplankton today in honor of Earth Science Week, an international event encouraging all of us to learn about or even devote our life to the Earth sciences. This year's theme is 'Earth Science for a Sustainable World,' emphasizing science's role in sustaining our planet. So, time to dust off that microscope, visit your local science museum, or perhaps just learn more about beautiful, swirling phytoplankton.

巴斯克海岸世界地质公园的比斯开湾,西班牙 Bay of Biscay in the Basque Coast Geopark near Bilbao, Spain (© Olimpio Fantuz/eStock Photo)

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巴斯克海岸世界地质公园的比斯开西班牙 Bay of Biscay in the Basque Coast Geopark near Bilbao, Spain (© Olimpio Fantuz/eStock Photo)

隐入大海的龙尾  Dragon tails trail to the sea

国际地理多样性日

这些龙尾巴状的结构延伸至西班牙北部巴斯克海岸的比斯开湾,是地球上最独特、最引人注目的地质构造之一。对于地质学家和喜欢看岩石的人来说,这是一个仙境。巴斯克海岸地质公园(Basque Coast Geopark)在导游的带领下,游客可以发现6000万年不间断的地质历史。

今天是国际地球多样性日,它揭示了地球科学在解决人类今天面临的重大挑战方面的重要性。这可以包括地质学、岩石圈、地球内部大规模结构以及大气、水圈和生物圈的研究。

International Geodiversity Day

These dragon tail-like structures that stretch into the Bay of Biscay on the Basque Coast of northern Spain are part of one of the most unique and remarkable geological formations on the planet. It's a wonderland for geologists, and for people who just like looking at cool rocks. Guided tours of the Basque Coast Geopark allow visitors to discover 60 million years of uninterrupted geological history.

Today is International Geodiversity Day, which brings to light the importance of geoscience in solving major challenges that humanity is facing today. This can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

布满奇石的青海岛,日本北长门海岸国定公园 Omijima Island in Kita-Nagato Kaigan Quasi-National Park, Japan (© Sean Pavone Photo/Adobe Stock)

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布满奇石的青海日本北长门海岸国定公园 Omijima Island in Kita-Nagato Kaigan Quasi-National Park, Japan (© Sean Pavone Photo/Adobe Stock)

海上阿尔卑斯山 Alps of the sea

Marine Day in Japan

The striking coastline of Omijima Island has earned it the nickname 'The Alps of the Sea.' Its sheer cliffs and dramatic angles certainly echo the skyscraping peaks in that European mountain range. But a visit to Omijimi Island will take you to the other side of the world, to Kita-Nagato Kaigan Quasi-National Park, in Yamaguchi, Japan. Year-round scuba diving adventures reveal a world under the waves just as beautiful as the one above the surface.

日本的海洋日

大尾岛引人注目的海岸线为它赢得了“海洋阿尔卑斯”的绰号它陡峭的悬崖和引人注目的角度肯定与欧洲那条山脉上的群峰相呼应。但是,游览大米岛将把你带到世界的另一边,日本山口的北长门凯根准国家公园。一年到头的水肺潜水冒险揭示了波浪下的世界和水面上的世界一样美丽。

黄金海岸上的冲浪者,澳大利亚 Surfers catching waves at Palm Beach on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (© Darren Tierney/Getty Images)

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黄金海岸上的冲浪者,澳大利亚 Surfers catching waves at Palm Beach on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (© Darren Tierney/Getty Images)

这是什么水上魔法? What waterborne wizardry is this?

International Surfing Day

Of all the tricks humans have taught themselves, few delight and impress more than surfing. A sport, a pastime, an art, a philosophy of life, surfing is as close to magic as a person can perform on the untamed ocean. Today, the sport of wave riding gets its well-earned due with International Surfing Day, a time each year to honor the sport, the lifestyle of surfing, and the ocean itself, whose good health is vital to the sport and so much else. Surfers have a special connection to the ocean and the waves it produces. A surfable wave relies on so much: The winds hundreds or thousands of miles away that produced the energy to set the swells in motion—those swells might take days to arrive at the shoreline; and then the reef or point of land or underwater boulder upon which a swell will break into a perfectly shaped wave. Wind and timing are everything, and devoted surfers know the weather and the shore intimately.

Surfing can be done anywhere waves break, from Iceland to Ireland, Brazil to Senegal. But there are a handful of spots renowned for their waves, such as Hawaii, Tahiti, California, and the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia, pictured here. As the sport has evolved, surfers have taken on bigger waves, giants that exceed 50 feet in height at now-famous surf breaks like Jaws, Mavericks, and the latest in Nazare, Portugal.

Surfing is believed to have originated in Polynesia more than 1,500 years ago, most likely in Tahiti and was observed by Westerners as early as the 1700s in Hawaii. Native Hawaiians are credited for creating the sport as we know it today. Duke Kahanamoku, Olympic swimmer, great waterman, and one of Hawaii's earliest celebrities, helped spread surfing's popularity to California and Australia in the early 1900s. Today, surfing is an Olympic sport, has a professional tour for both men and women, and is an integral part of popular culture. But for the lucky souls who know how to ride a wave, it's simply the best way to spend a day at the beach.

国际冲浪日

在人类自学的所有技巧中,很少有比冲浪更让人愉悦和印象深刻的了。冲浪是一项运动,一种消遣,一门艺术,一种人生哲学,就像一个人在未驯服的海洋上所能表演的一样,它离魔法很近。今天,冲浪运动因国际冲浪日而备受青睐,每年的国际冲浪日都是纪念这项运动、冲浪生活方式和海洋本身的日子,海洋本身的健康对这项运动和其他许多运动都至关重要。冲浪者与海洋及其产生的波浪有着特殊的联系。冲浪的波浪依赖于这么多:数百或数千英里以外的风产生的能量使涌浪运动,这些涌浪可能需要几天才能到达海岸线;然后是礁石或陆地或水下巨砾的点,在其上,涌浪将变成完美形状的波浪。风和时间是一切,热衷于冲浪的人对天气和海岸了如指掌。

冰岛爱尔兰,从巴西塞内加尔,冲浪可以在任何波涛汹涌的地方进行。但也有一些以海浪闻名的景点,如夏威夷、塔希提、加利福尼亚和澳大利亚昆士兰的黄金海岸,如图所示。随着这项运动的发展,冲浪者们已经开始接受更大的海浪,在如今著名的冲浪休息处,身高超过50英尺的巨人,如大白鲨、小牛队,以及最近在葡萄牙的纳粹队。

据信,冲浪运动起源于1500多年前的波利尼西亚,最有可能发生在塔希提,早在17世纪,西方人就在夏威夷观察到了冲浪运动。据我们今天所知,夏威夷土著人创造了这项运动。20世纪初,奥林匹克游泳运动员、伟大的沃特曼、夏威夷最早的名人之一杜克·卡哈纳莫库(DukeKahanamoku)帮助将冲浪运动普及到加利福尼亚和澳大利亚。今天,冲浪是一项奥林匹克运动,男女都有专业的巡回赛,是流行文化的一个组成部分。但对于那些懂得乘风破浪的幸运儿来说,这是在海滩度过一天的最佳方式。

蓬塔德尔加达附近的海岸,葡萄牙 Coast near Ponta Delgada, Madeira, Portugal (© Jan Wlodarczyk/Alamy)

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蓬塔德尔加达附近的海岸葡萄牙 Coast near Ponta Delgada, Madeira, Portugal (© Jan Wlodarczyk/Alamy)

亚速尔群岛游玩 Gateway to the Azores

Ponta Delgada

Today we're taking a trip to Ponta Delgada in the Portuguese Azores island chain. It's the largest city on São Miguel, known as the 'green island,' the largest and most populated island in the autonomous region of Portugal. Gorgeous views and beaches make this a tourist hot spot. The Azores islands are especially popular for outdoor adventure, with world-class hiking, diving, and sailing.

德尔加达

今天我们要去葡萄牙亚速尔群岛的德尔加达桥。它是圣米格尔上最大的城市,被称为“绿岛”,是葡萄牙自治区最大、人口最多的岛屿。美丽的风景和海滩使这里成为旅游热点。亚速尔群岛特别适合户外探险,有世界级的徒步旅行、潜水帆船

风景秀丽的加勒比海岸,哥伦比亚 Caribbean coast near Buritaca, Colombia (© Nicholas Hills/Getty Images)

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风景秀丽的加勒比海岸,哥伦比亚 Caribbean coast near Buritaca, Colombia (© Nicholas Hills/Getty Images)

哥伦比亚的加勒比海岸线 The Caribbean coastline of Colombia

Northern coast of Colombia

Central America becomes South America at the shores of Colombia, the northernmost country in South America. Colombia is the only country in South America that has coastline on both the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Seen here is a stretch of beach near Buritaca, on the Caribbean side of Colombia. This region of Colombia boasts some of the most beautiful beaches in the country. It is also among the country's most ecologically diverse with jungle, desert, and the highest coastal mountain range in the world, the Sierra Nevada.

Colombia's colonial history began in this region when Spanish conquistadors landed in 1499. Within 50 years, the Spanish had established the kingdom of Granada beginning a rule that would last nearly 300 years.

哥伦比亚北部海岸

中美洲在哥伦比亚海岸变成了南美洲,哥伦比亚是南美洲最北的国家。哥伦比亚是南美洲唯一一个东临加勒比海、西临太平洋的国家。这里可以看到哥伦比亚加勒比海一侧布里塔卡附近的一片海滩。哥伦比亚的这个地区拥有全国最美丽的海滩。它也是该国生态多样性最丰富的地区之一,有丛林、沙漠和世界上最高的沿海山脉内华达脉。

哥伦比亚的殖民历史始于1499年西班牙征服者登陆该地区。在50年内,西班牙人建立了格拉纳达王国,开始了一个持续近300年的统治。

海岸旁的二见浦夫妇岩,日本三重县 Meoto Iwa (Wedded Rocks) off the coast of Ise, Mie Prefecture, Honshu, Japan (© Marco Gaiotti/plainpicture)

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海岸旁的二见浦夫妇岩,日本三重县 Meoto Iwa (Wedded Rocks) off the coast of Ise, Mie Prefecture, Honshu, Japan (© Marco Gaiotti/plainpicture)

Wedded Rocks, Japan

Just off the shore of the city of Ise, in the southern-central region of Japan's main island, Honshu, two rocks represent a sacred union between a divine couple. Known collectively as Meoto Iwa (Wedded Rocks), these sea stacks represent Izanagi and Izanami, the married brother-and-sister deities who created the islands of Japan and its gods in Japanese mythology. The large rock on the left is said to be the husband, Izanagi–at its peak is a small torii, a symbolic gateway marking the entrance to a Shinto shrine. The smaller rock represents his wife, Izanami.

The smitten sea stacks are joined together in matrimony by a thick rope braided of rice straw called 'shimenawa,' which is used as a symbol of purity and protection in the Shinto religion. The sacred rope is replaced in a special ceremony, held three times each year during the months of May, September, and December. The best time to see the rocks is at dawn during summer or twilight in winter, when the sun and moon, respectively, rise between them. If the weather is clear and the gods are on your side, you might even catch a glimpse of Mount Fuji in the distance. But we think it's just as beguiling with heavy snowflakes gently falling all around.

婚礼岩石,日本

离日本本州中南部的伊瑟市不远,两块岩石代表着一对神圣的夫妻之间的神圣结合。这些海堆被统称为Meoto Iwa(Wedded Rocks),它们代表了在日本神话中创造了日本岛屿及其诸神的已婚兄弟姐妹神Izanagi和Izanami。左边的大石头据说是丈夫Izanagi——山顶上是一个小牌坊,一个象征性的大门,标志着神社的入口。较小的岩石代表他的妻子伊扎纳米。

被击倒的海垛在婚礼上由一根由稻草编织而成的粗绳连接在一起,称为“shimenawa”,在神道教中被用作纯洁和保护的象征。在每年5月、9月和12月举行的三次特殊仪式中,更换神圣绳索。观赏这些岩石的最佳时间是夏季的黎明季的黄昏,此时太阳和月亮分别从它们之间升起。如果天气晴朗,众神在你身边,你甚至可以瞥见远处的富士山。但我们认为,这和四周轻轻飘落的厚厚的雪花一样迷人。

苏阿海沟,萨摩亚乌波卢岛南海岸 To Sua Ocean Trench on the south coast of Upolu Island in Samoa (© Chris McLennan/Alamy)

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苏阿海沟,萨摩亚乌波卢海岸 (© Chris McLennan/Alamy)

To Sua Ocean Trench

This majestic swimming hole on Samoa's Upolu Island sits just inland from the Pacific coast. It was formed when the roof of an ancient lava tube collapsed, exposing the 98-foot-deep teal-blue pool. This is the largest of many such tide pools and blow holes formed in the area many thousands of years ago. An underground cave system connects this swimming hole to the nearby ocean, and the water rises and falls with the tides.

'To Sua' translates to English as 'big hole.' While accurate, it feels like an understatement in this context. For adventurous visitors to Upolu Island, To Sua Ocean Trench can feel like a trip to another world. To get to this natural saltwater pool, make your way along a cliffside path surrounded by lush forest. Then climb down to the waters via the wooden ladder. After your swim, you can squeeze through a cave-like lava tube to find yourself on a short, sandy beach.

到苏阿海沟

萨摩亚乌波卢岛上这座宏伟的游泳池位于太平洋海岸的内陆。它是在一条古代熔岩管的顶部坍塌,露出98英尺深的蓝绿色水池时形成的。这是数千年前在该地区形成的众多潮汐池和气孔中最大的一个。一个地下洞穴系统将这个游泳连接到附近的海洋,海水随着潮汐涨落。

“To Sua”在英语中译为“big hole”虽然准确,但在这种情况下,这感觉像是轻描淡写。对于到乌波卢岛探险的游客来说,到苏亚海沟就像到另一个世界旅行。要到达这个天然的咸水池,请沿着一条被茂密森林环绕的悬崖边小径前进。然后通过木梯爬下水面。游泳后,你可以挤过一个洞穴状的熔岩管,发现自己在一个短的沙滩上。

坎伯兰岛国家海岸,美国佐治亚州 Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia (© Wilsilver77/Getty Images Plus)

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坎伯兰岛国家海岸美国佐治亚州 Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia (© Wilsilver77/Getty Images Plus)

Cumberland Island National Seashore

Along the southernmost stretch of Georgia's Atlantic coast are several barrier islands, and Cumberland is the largest. The US National Park Service (NPS) protects 9,800 acres of the island's wilderness, a place where, as the NPS says, nature and history meet. Human occupation on Cumberland Island touches on numerous milestones in the story of America.

Eventually, Cumberland became a vacation getaway for wealthy industrialists in the 20th century before it became a protected public land.

The natural beauty of the island's maritime forests and marshes add to Cumberland's unique charm. And a lush ecosystem supports the island's diverse array of wildlife, including armadillos, alligators, and herds of feral horses.

州坎伯兰海岸国家公园

沿着乔治亚州大西洋海岸最南端有几个屏障,坎伯兰岛是最大的。美国国家公园管理局(NPS)保护着岛上9800英亩的荒野,正如NPS所说,这里是自然和历史交汇的地方。坎伯兰岛上的人类占领涉及到美国历史上的许多里程碑。

最终,坎伯兰在成为受保护的公共土地之前,在20世纪成为富有实业家的度假胜地。

上海森林沼泽的自然美景增添了坎伯兰独特的魅力。繁茂的生态系统支撑着岛上各种各样的野生动物,包括犰狳、短吻鳄和成群的野马。

日出时的麦克拱岩,俄勒冈南海岸 Mack Arch Rock at sunrise on the southern Oregon coast (© Dennis Frates/Alamy)

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日出时的麦克拱岩,俄勒冈海岸 Mack Arch Rock at sunrise on the southern Oregon coast (© Dennis Frates/Alamy)

Southern Oregon coast, Mack Arch Rock

One of the common sights along the Oregon coast are the colossal rock formations known as sea stacks that jut from the Pacific and form an indelible, craggy imprint in your memory. The sea stacks you see here run next to a grassy promontory in the southern part of the state that overlooks a mostly inaccessible stretch of coastline.

In the background of this image is the Mack Arch, one of the largest naturally formed arches on the Pacific Coast and part of the Mack Reef archipelago. These clusters of sea stacks and beaches are home to a large concentration of seabirds like cormorants, black oystercatchers, gulls, and murres, as well as harbor seals and other marine wildlife. To help preserve this pristine sanctuary, the US Fish & Wildlife Service has designated it part of the Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge and closed the area off to the public. So have the owners of all the privately-owned land and beach that surround the refuge. So, if you're looking to get a close-up view of Mack Arch, your best bet is to do so by plane or boat.

俄勒冈州南部海岸,Mack Arch Rock

俄勒冈州海岸的一个常见景观是巨大的岩层,被称为海垛,它们从太平洋伸出,在你的记忆中形成一个不可磨灭、崎岖不平的印记。你在这里看到的海垛位于该州南部的一个长满青草的海角旁,俯瞰着一段几乎无法到达的海岸线。

这张图片的背景是麦克拱门,它是太平洋海岸最大的自然形成的拱门之一,也是麦克礁群岛的一部分。这些成簇的海垛和海滩是鸬鹚、黑牡蛎捕手、海鸥和海鸥等海鸟以及海豹和其他海洋野生动物的聚集地。为了帮助保护这个原始的保护区,美国鱼类和野生动物服务局已将其指定为俄勒冈群国家野生动物保护区的一部分,并对公众关闭了该区域。避难所周围所有私有土地和海滩的所有者也是如此。所以,如果你想近距离观察马克拱门,最好是坐飞机或