标签 西班牙 下的文章

格拉纳达的阿尔罕布拉,安达卢西亚省,西班牙 Alhambra in Granada, Andalucia, Spain (© Armand Tamboly/Getty Images)

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格拉纳达的阿尔罕布拉安达卢西亚省,西班牙 Alhambra in Granada, Andalucia, Spain (© Armand Tamboly/Getty Images)

绿宝石中的珍珠 Pearl among the emeralds

The Alhambra in Granada, Spain

The winds of history have long blown through the beautiful halls of the Alhambra. Though it had been the location of fortresses as far back as the 800s, construction of the Alhambra (Arabic for 'red castle') began in 1238 under the rule of Muhammad I Ibn al-Ahmar, founder of the Emirate of Granada. Ensuing leaders would continue construction of the complex, turning it into one of the finest examples of architecture from the historic Islamic world. The palace was the final hold of the Moors before the completion of the Christian Reconquista in 1492, when the Alhambra became the royal court of Ferdinand and Isabella. They greeted Christopher Columbus there later that same year.

While Spanish rulers would soon leave their imprint on the complex, with Spanish Renaissance architecture standing in contrast to the existing structures, the next few centuries would see the Alhambra gradually fall into disrepair and disuse, including a damaging occupation by Napolean's forces during the Peninsular War of 1807-1814. After Napolean's defeat, the grand palace was rediscovered among European and American travelers, which led to several extensive restorations. In 1984 the Alhambra was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Today it's one of Spain's most visited tourist destinations.

西班牙格拉纳达的阿罕布拉宫

历史之风早已吹过阿罕布拉美丽的大厅。尽管早在800年代它就已经是要塞所在地,但在格拉纳达酋长国创始人穆罕默德·伊本·艾哈迈尔(MuhammadIbnAl-Ahmar)的统治下,阿罕布拉(Alhambra)(阿拉伯语中“红色城堡”)的修建始于1238年。随后的领导人将继续修建该建筑群,使其成为历史上伊斯兰世界最优秀的建筑范例之一。1492年,基督教徒收复失地,阿罕布拉成为费迪南德和伊莎贝拉的皇家宫廷,在此之前,这座宫殿是摩尔人的最后据点。同年晚些时候,他们在那里迎接了克里斯托弗·哥伦布。

虽然西班牙统治者很快会在该建筑群上留下自己的印记,西班牙文艺复兴时期的建筑与现有建筑形成鲜明对比,但在接下来的几个世纪里,阿罕布拉宫将逐渐年久失修和废弃,包括1807-1814年半岛战争期间那不勒斯军队的破坏性占领。纳波利安战败后,欧洲和美国游客重新发现了这座宏伟的宫殿,这导致了几次大规模的修复。1984年,阿罕布拉被联合国教科文组织命名为世界遗产。今天,它是西班牙游客最多的旅游目的地之一。

黄昏下的马拉加老城,西班牙 Old town of Málaga, Spain (© Sean Pavone Photo/Getty Images)

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黄昏下的马拉加老城西班牙 Old town of Málaga, Spain (© Sean Pavone Photo/Getty Images)

2800年历史的老城 2,800 years of history

Málaga, Spain

Today we're visiting a city with over 2,800 years of history, one of the oldest in Europe. Málaga is said to have been founded by the Phoenicians in 770 BCE and today its year-round exceptional weather has made it the capital of tourism in Spain. Situated perfectly along the Costa Del Sol, an estimated six million tourists make the trip to this culturally rich mecca every year. If you can pull yourself away from the beautiful beaches, you'll find yourself abound in historical architecture, museums and the local cuisine of espetos, specially skewered sardines cooked over an open fire.

Aside from paying Pablo Picasso's birthplace a visit, the most well-known reason people make the journey to Málaga is to celebrate Holy Week. Handled differently than the silent and meditative celebrations throughout the rest of Spain, Málaga's 45 processions are essentially colorful, loud, and exciting parties throughout the streets commemorating The Passion of Jesus from Palm Sunday until Easter Sunday. The event has happened for more than 500 years with a vast number of floats and other processional materials being carried over from year to year.

西班牙马拉加

今天我们要参观一座有2800多年历史的城市,它是欧洲最古老的城市之一。据说,马拉加是腓尼基人在公元前770年建立的,今天,一年到头的特殊天气使其成为西班牙的旅游之都。坐落在太阳海岸沿线,每年估计有600万游客前往这个文化丰富的麦加。如果你能远离美丽的海滩,你会发现自己拥有丰富的历史建筑、博物馆和埃斯佩托的当地美食,特别是在明火上烹制的串制沙丁鱼。

除了参观巴勃罗·毕加索的出生地,人们前往玛拉加最著名的原因是庆祝圣周。与西班牙其他地区的静默和冥想庆祝活动不同,玛拉加的45场游行基本上是五颜六色、喧闹和激动人心的聚会,贯穿于整个街道,从棕榈周日到复活节周日,纪念耶稣的激情。这件事已经发生了500多年,每年都有大量的彩车和其他游行材料被带到这里。

通往萨卡洛布拉湾的路,西班牙马约卡岛 The road leading to Sa Calobra on the Spanish Balearic island of Majorca (© Tolo Balaguer/agefotostock)

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通往萨卡洛布拉的路,西班牙马约卡 The road leading to Sa Calobra on the Spanish Balearic island of Majorca (© Tolo Balaguer/agefotostock)

Road to Sa Calobra, Majorca, Spain

Though twists and turns abound on this road leading to Sa Calobra, on the Spanish island of Majorca, you'd have a hard time getting lost out here—there's only one road in and out of this coastal town. Rather than cut a more direct path through the mountains via tunnels, the road's designer chose to incorporate numerous switchbacks and hairpin turns, allowing sightseers to journey above ground. After all, if you make the long trip to this Mediterranean island paradise, you won't want to miss a thing—just keep an eye on the road too!

通往西班牙马略卡岛萨卡罗布拉的道路

虽然这条通往西班牙马略卡岛萨卡洛布拉的道路上有很多曲折,但你在这里很难迷路,因为进出这个海滨小镇只有一条路。这条路的设计者并没有通过隧道开辟一条更为直接的路,而是选择了大量的转弯和发夹式转弯,让观者可以在地面上旅行。毕竟,如果你长途跋涉来到这个地中海岛屿天堂,你不会想错过任何东西的,只要留意一下路就好了!

坎塔布里亚的小教堂,西班牙 The chapel and hermitage of Santa Justa in Cantabria, Spain (© Luis Miguel Martin/Getty Images)

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坎塔布里亚的小教堂西班牙 The chapel and hermitage of Santa Justa in Cantabria, Spain (© Luis Miguel Martin/Getty Images)

The Hermitage of Santa Justa

Today's image brings us to Cantabria, a rugged region on the north coast of Spain. To reach this isolated stone hut, you'll need to wait until the frothing waters of the Bay of Biscay hit low tide, then traverse a silty path to the structure's façade. Peering in the windows, you'll see a cavernous room adorned with shrines—the long-abandoned living quarters of a religious hermit who dwelt here in the 8th century. Not your typical waterfront condo, but hey, it's cozy.

圣胡斯塔的隐居地

今天的图片带我们来到坎塔布里亚,一个位于西班牙北海岸的崎岖地区。要到达这座孤零零的石头小屋,你需要等到比斯开的泡沫水达到低潮,然后穿过一条粉土小路到达建筑物的正面。从窗户往里看,你会看到一个洞穴般的房间,里面装饰着神龛——一位8世纪居住在这里的宗教隐士长期被遗弃的居住区。这不是你典型的海滨公寓,但它很舒适。

别致的柳条田野,西班牙 Cañamares Wicker fields in Cañamares, Spain (© David Santiago Garcia/Alamy)

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别致的柳条田野,西班牙 Cañamares Wicker fields in Cañamares, Spain (© David Santiago Garcia/Alamy)

Wicker fields in Cañamares, Spain

The summer swaths of green in this field have transformed by wintertime to a harvest-ready red—but it's not a harvest you can eat. Just what's being grown here?

Soon these reeds will be cut, bundled, and cured to become wicker. The blood-hued brush growing naturally by riverbanks near the central Spanish village of Cañamares is gathered each year by locals. The people of Cañamares maintain a centuries-old tradition of weaving with their locally harvested wicker. They create baskets, furniture, sculptures, and more from the coveted stalks.

西班牙卡尼亚马雷斯的柳条田

到了冬天,这片土地上的夏季大片绿色已经变成了可以收割的红色,但这不是你可以吃的收成。这里种的是什么?

很快,这些芦苇将被切割、捆扎并固化成柳条。每年当地人都会在靠近西班牙中部村庄卡尼亚马雷斯的岸边采集这种自然生长的血色灌木。卡尼阿马尔人保持着用当地收获的柳条织布的悠久传统。他们用令人垂涎的秸秆制作篮子、家具、雕塑等。

鸟瞰埃尔塔霍峡谷, 西班牙龙达小镇 Aerial view of El Tajo gorge and the Puente Nuevo bridge in Ronda, Málaga, Spain (© Jude Newkirk/Amazing Aerial Agency)

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鸟瞰埃尔塔霍峡谷, 西班牙龙达小镇 Aerial view of El Tajo gorge and the Puente Nuevo bridge in Ronda, Málaga, Spain (© Jude Newkirk/Amazing Aerial Agency)

Spain El Tajo Gorge

Today we're visiting the mountaintop town of Ronda in the Málaga province of Andalusia, in the south of Spain. First settled by the Celts and later inhabited by the Romans and Moors, this dramatic cliffside setting is split in two by the El Tajo gorge, a rocky drop plummeting nearly 400 feet to the Guadalevín River. There are three bridges that span the gorge, the largest and newest of which features in the center of our homepage image and is—appropriately enough—called Puente Nuevo (New Bridge). Despite its name, the bridge is more than couple of centuries old—it was completed in 1793 and connects the Moorish old town, La Ciudad, with the new town, El Mercadillo.

The Puente Nuevo was completed by Spanish architect Jose Martín de Aldehuela, who also designed another of the historic town's famous landmarks—the open-air circular building you can see to the left of the bridge. The Plaza de Toros de Ronda is one of Spain's oldest bullrings. Built entirely of stone in the 1780s, it's considered the birthplace of modern bullfighting. It was frequented by two giants of American culture—Ernest Hemingway and Orson Welles, who were inspired by Ronda's beauty and bullfighting traditions. They spent many summers in these parts, and Welles' ashes were scattered in the town at the country estate of his great bullfighting friend, Antonio Ordóñez.

西班牙塔霍峡谷

今天,我们将参观西班牙南部安达卢西亚马拉加省的山顶小镇隆达。最初由凯尔特人定居,后来由罗马人和摩尔人居住,这一引人注目的悬崖边环境被El-Tajo峡谷一分为二,这是一个岩石瀑布,垂直下落近400英尺,直达瓜达莱文。有三座横跨峡谷,其中最大、最新的一座桥位于我们主页图像的中心,被恰当地称为Puente Nuevo(新桥)。尽管它的名字,这座桥已经有两个多世纪的历史了。它是在1793年建成的,连接着摩尔人的老城La Ciudad和新城El Mercadillo。

Puente Nuevo由西班牙建筑师Jose Martín de Aldehuela完成,他还设计了这座历史小镇的另一个著名地标——你可以在桥的左侧看到的露天圆形建筑。隆达广场是西班牙最古老的斗牛场之一。在1780年代完全用石头建成,它被认为是现代斗牛的发源地。两位美国文化巨人欧内斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)和奥森·威尔斯(Orson Welles)经常顾这里,他们的灵感来自隆达的美丽和斗牛传统。他们在这些地方度过了许多夏天,威尔斯的骨灰散落在镇上他伟大的斗牛朋友安东尼奥·奥德涅斯的乡村庄园里。

古罗马斗兽场,西班牙桑蒂蓬塞镇的罗马古城遗迹 The Roman amphitheater of Itálica near Santiponce, Spain (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

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古罗马斗兽场西班牙桑蒂蓬塞镇的罗马古城遗迹 The Roman amphitheater of Itálica near Santiponce, Spain (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

Birthplace of Roman emperors

Just a few miles north of Seville, Spain, you'll find the ancient ruins of Itálica, the first Roman settlement in what is now Spain and the first Roman city outside of Italy. The city was founded in 206 BCE by the Roman general Scipio as a place to house veterans from the Second Punic Wars. Itálica was also the birthplace of at least two Roman emperors.

For centuries, Itálica was an elaborate urban center with a temple, a theater, public baths, gorgeous homes for the monied elite, and a population of about 8,000 residents. This aerial view is of the city's famous amphitheater, where thousands of spectators came from near and far to watch the bloody gladiator fights, hunts of wild beasts, and public executions. The 'entertainment' here was not for the faint of heart.

Today, the modern Spanish city of Santiponce has grown up around—and even atop—the ruins. Tourists come here to walk the preserved Roman streets, admire the mosaics, and imagine the scenes of life and death that happened in this amphitheater nearly 2,000 years ago.

罗马皇帝的出生地

在西班牙塞维利亚以北几英里的地方,你会发现古老的Itálica遗址,这是现在西班牙的第一个罗马定居点,也是意大利以外的第一个罗马城市。这座城市由罗马将军西皮奥于公元前206年建立,是第二次布匿战争退伍军人的住所。伊塔利卡也是至少两位罗马皇帝的出生地。

几个世纪以来,伊塔利卡一直是一个精心设计的城市中心,有庙、剧院、公共浴场、摩尼德精英的华丽家园,人口约8000人。这张鸟瞰图是该市著名的圆形剧场,数千名观众从四面八方赶来观看血腥的角斗士搏斗、野兽狩猎和公开处决。这里的“娱乐”不是为胆小鬼准备的。

今天,西班牙现代城市圣蒂蓬斯在废墟周围甚至在废墟上发展起来。游客们来到这里,是为了漫步保存完好的罗马街道,欣赏马赛克,想象2000年前发生在这个圆形剧场里的生死场景。

塔霍河上空的银河,西班牙蒙弗拉圭国家公园 Milky Way over the Tagus river in Monfragüe National Park, Spain (© Miguel Angel Muñoz Ruiz/Cavan Images)

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塔霍上空的银河西班牙蒙弗拉圭国家公园 Milky Way over the Tagus river in Monfragüe National Park, Spain (© Miguel Angel Muñoz Ruiz/Cavan Images)

Celestial Spain

Today we're in the Extremadura region of western Spain, in the beautiful Monfragüe National Park along the border with Portugal. This 18-mile long, 4-mile wide stretch of nature in the province of Cáceres is framed by the Tagus and Tietar rivers (it's the Tagus that's in our image today). The mountainous Pena Falcon rock face defines its western side. Much of the park is covered by a thick Mediterranean forest full of wildlife, making this place a destination for outdoor lovers of all sorts. It's especially notable for the many birds: Over 280 species that are found here, including storks, kingfishers, cormorants, and eagles, as well as one of the world's largest reserves of black vultures and their tawny vulture cousins. Other wildlife routinely spotted in Monfragüe include otters, deer, wild boar, and Iberian lynx.

When the sun goes down in Monfragüe, the generally cloudless sky, combined with the low level of light pollution makes this a perfect place for stargazing. The national park was recognized as a dark-sky preserve in 2016. Monfragüe also appeals to those interested in the human history of the area, as it contains a number of caves with prehistoric paintings, Roman ruins, and the remnants of the castle of Monfragüe, which was built by Moors in the 9th century.

天国西班牙

今天我们来到西班牙西部的埃斯特马杜拉地区,在与葡萄牙接壤的美丽的蒙弗雷盖国家公园。这片18英里长、4英里宽的自然景观位于卡塞雷斯省,被塔格斯河和蒂塔尔河(我们今天的图像中就是塔格斯河)所环绕。多的佩纳猎鹰岩面界定了它的西侧。公园的大部分被一片茂密的地中海森林所覆盖,森林里到处都是野生动物,这使这里成为各种户外爱好者的目的地。尤其值得注意的是,这里有280多种鸟类,包括鹳、翠鸟、鸬鹚和老鹰,以及世界上最大的黑秃鹫及其黄褐色秃鹫近亲保护区之一。其他经常在蒙弗雷盖发现的野生动物包括水獭、鹿、野猪和伊比利亚猞猁。

当太阳在蒙弗雷盖落山时,通常无云的天空,加上低水平的污染,使这里成为一个完美的地方凝视星空。2016年,国家公园被认为是一个黑暗的天空保护区。蒙弗拉圭也吸引了那些对该地区的人类历史感兴趣的人,因为它包含了一些带有史前绘画洞穴罗马遗迹和蒙弗拉圭城堡的遗迹,蒙弗拉圭城堡是摩尔人在9世纪建造的。

由中世纪的城墙包围着的市镇,西班牙滨海托萨 The medieval walled town in Tossa de Mar, Catalonia, Spain (© dleiva/Alamy)

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中世纪的城墙包围着的市镇,西班牙滨海托萨 The medieval walled town in Tossa de Mar, Catalonia, Spain (© dleiva/Alamy)

Blue paradise on the Costa Brava

On Spain's Costa Brava, about 45 miles north of Barcelona, lies a perfectly preserved medieval town just beyond the enceinte (stone wall) you see curving up the hillside. La Vila Vella (The Old Town) blends with the more modern, larger city of Tossa de Mar. Here, the 21st century melds beautifully with the 14th.

Modern hotels are just out of the camera's viewfinder. Visitors can spend their days sunbathing on the beach, diving in the sea or strolling La Vila Vella's narrow, winding streets past centuries-old architecture. Just beyond the defensive walls is the deep blue sea. It was this view that inspired French painter Marc Chagall to nickname Tossa de Mar 'blue paradise.' In fact, Tossa de Mar has long been a haven for artists. Actress Ava Gardner loved the town so much while making two movies there in the '50s that the town has erected a statue in her memory.

布拉瓦海岸蓝色天堂

在西班牙的布拉瓦海岸,巴塞罗那以北大约45英里,坐落着一个保存完好的中世纪城镇,就在你看到的蜿蜒的坡上。拉维拉维拉(老城区)与更现代化、更大的城市托萨德马尔融合在一起。在这里,21世纪与14世纪完美融合。

现代化的旅馆就在照相机的取景器外。游客可以在沙滩上晒日光浴,在海里潜水,或者漫步在拉维拉维拉的狭窄蜿蜒的街道上,这是一座古老的建筑。就在防御墙的后面是深蓝色的大海。正是这种观点启发了法国画家马克·夏加尔给托萨德马尔起了一个绰号“蓝色天堂”。事实上,托萨德马尔长期以来一直是艺术家的天堂。女演员艾娃·加德纳(Ava Gardner)在50年代拍摄两部电影时非常喜欢这个小镇,以至于小镇在她的记忆中竖起了一座雕像

西班牙马拉加蓬皮杜中心 Centre Pompidou Málaga in Málaga, Spain (© Wim Wiskerke/Alamy)

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西班牙马拉加蓬皮杜中心 Centre Pompidou Málaga in Málaga, Spain (© Wim Wiskerke/Alamy)

International Museum Day

On International Museum Day, we're looking at the Centre Pompidou Málaga in Spain, an offshoot of the modern art museum in Paris. This location was introduced in 2015 as a pop-up branch—a temporary, underground space for exhibitions and multi-disciplinary experiences as well as workshops dedicated to younger audiences. Originally scheduled for a 5-year run, it was extended until 2025. The piece we see here, 'El Cubo,' created by French artist Daniel Buren, is the only part of the museum that's visible above ground. The glass cube functions as a multicolored skylight, its panels projecting tinted light into the subterranean museum's courtyard below.

International Museum Day began in 1977, with participating museums, galleries, and similar institutions offering free or reduced admission, as well as programs to highlight the work they do. In 2020, the format was adapted to focus on virtual activities, and this year will offer a mix of online, hybrid, and in-person events. As museums around the world begin to re-open their doors, this year's theme is 'The Future of Museums: Recover and Reimagine.'

国际博物馆

在国际博物馆日,我们看到的是西班牙拉加蓬皮杜市中心,巴黎现代艺术博物馆的一个分支。2015年,这一位置作为一个弹出式分支引入,是一个临时地下空间,用于展览和多学科体验,以及专门为年轻观众举办的研讨会。原计划运行5年,延长至2025年。我们在这里看到的是法国艺术家丹尼尔·布伦(Daniel Buren)创作的“El Cubo”,这是博物馆中唯一能在地面上看到的部分。玻璃立方体的功能就像一个五颜六色的天窗,它的面板将有色线投射到地下博物馆的庭院下面。

国际博物馆日始于1977年,参加活动的博物馆、美术馆和类似机构提供免费或减少门票,以及突出他们所做工作的项目。2020年,这种形式被调整为以虚拟活动为重点,今年将提供在线、混合和面对面的活动。随着世界各地的博物馆开始重新开放,今年的主题是“博物馆的未来:复原和重新想象”