标签 意大利 下的文章

陶尔米纳古剧院,意大利西西里岛 Ancient theatre of Taormina in Sicily, Italy (© Antonino Bartuccio/eStock Photo)

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陶尔米纳剧院意大利西西里岛 Ancient theatre of Taormina in Sicily, Italy (© Antonino Bartuccio/eStock Photo)

戏剧演出 The play's the thing

Theatre of Taormina in Sicily

What better place to celebrate World Theatre Day than the Ancient theatre of Taormina, an amphitheater built in the Hellenistic style of the Greeks in the third century BCE. The venue was later expanded by the Romans and is one of the signature sights in the Sicilian town of Taormina. And if you look in the upper-right corner of the photo, that's Mount Etna giving a performance of its own, spewing a little ash and smoke.

The theater is still in use, hosting operas, theatrical productions, and concerts. The beauty of this town, built into a steep hill overlooking the Ionian Sea and Mount Etna, is said to have inspired writers and thinkers both ancient and modern, from Plato to D.H. Lawrence and Truman Capote.

Since 1962 World Theatre Day has been celebrated every March 27th by theatre professionals, organizations, universities and theatre lovers across the continents. Each year a speaker is selected to deliver a message about the importance of theatre and its value to humanity.

西西里陶尔米纳剧院

还有什么比陶尔米纳古剧场更好的地方来庆祝世界戏剧日呢?陶尔米纳古剧场是一座建于公元前三世纪的希腊式圆形剧场。后来,罗马人扩建了场地,这是西西里岛陶尔米纳镇的标志性景点之一。如果你看这张照片的右上角,那就是埃特纳自己的表演,喷出一点灰烬和烟

该剧院仍在使用,举办歌剧、戏剧演出和音乐会。这个小镇建在一座陡峭的小山上,俯瞰爱奥尼亚海和埃特纳山,据说它的美丽给古代和现代的作家和思想家带来了灵感,从柏拉图到D.H.劳伦斯和杜鲁门·卡波特。

自1962年以来,各大洲的戏剧专业人士、组织、大学和戏剧爱好者每年3月27日都庆祝世界戏剧日。每年都会选出一位演讲者来传达戏剧的重要性及其对人类的价值。

古罗马广场,意大利 The Roman Forum, Rome, Italy (© Peter Zelei Images/Getty Images)

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古罗马广场意大利 The Roman Forum, Rome, Italy (© Peter Zelei Images/Getty Images)

前往罗马广场的路上发生了一件趣事…… A funny thing happened on the way to the Forum…

Beware the ides of March

We're at the Roman Forum, or Forum Romanum, for the ides of March, a day made famous as the site of the assassination of Julius Caesar. While Shakespeare's Caesar was warned to 'beware the ides of March,' historians have never attributed the phrase to those who tipped off the actual Caesar about a plot against him. We do know that before March 15, 44 BCE was over, Caesar was assassinated. Afterward, Rome descended into war, ending the Roman Republic, and leading to the rise of the Roman Empire.

The Forum was a city square in which Rome's commercial, political, and religious activity took place, along with the occasional assassination. It was a site of ceremonies and celebrations. It was where Mark Antony's famed funeral oration for Caesar was given, and where Caesar's body was burned before the public. Today the area is a popular tourist attraction, drawing more than 4.5 million visitors in an average year.

当心三月的天气

我们在罗马论坛,或罗马论坛,为三月的ides,这一天作为朱利叶斯·凯撒遇刺的地点而闻名。虽然莎士比亚的凯撒被警告要“当心三月的末日”,但历史学家从未将这句话归因于那些向真正的凯撒透露了针对他的阴谋的人。我们知道,在公元前44年3月15日之前,凯撒被暗杀。后来,罗马陷入战争,结束了罗马共和国,并导致罗马帝国的崛起。

该论坛是一个城市广场,罗马的商业、政治和宗教活动以及偶尔发生的暗杀都在这里进行。这是一个举行仪式和庆祝活动的地方。在这里,马克·安东尼为凯撒举行了著名的葬礼演讲,凯撒的遗体在公众面前被焚毁。如今,该地区是一个受欢迎的旅游景点,平均每年吸引450多万游客。

Ponte Gobbo桥,意大利博比奥 Ponte Vecchio bridge near Bobbio, Italy (© afinocchiaro/Getty Images)

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Ponte Gobbo意大利博比奥 Ponte Vecchio bridge near Bobbio, Italy (© afinocchiaro/Getty Images)

特雷比亚的左岸便是 On the left bank of the river Trebbia, lies...

Bobbio, Italy

Between the metropolis of Milan—the fashion and design capital of Italy—and the fabled seaport city of Genoa, you'll find this small river town in northern Italy. People have resided here since ancient times, including the Romans, but the town really began to flourish when the abbey was constructed in the 7th century. For much of the Middle Ages, the Bobbio Abbey and its vast library made the town a center of religion, culture, and learning.

These days, Bobbio is a regular tourist stop perhaps best known for its old bridge, or Ponte Vecchio (not to be confused with THE Ponte Vecchio in Florence). Bobbio's old bridge spans the river Trebbia with 11 arches of unequal size and is commonly called Ponte Gobbo (Hunchback Bridge), because of its irregular shape.

Bobbio remains a jewel box of a town frozen in time. With its many small churches, modest houses, and cobblestone streets, Bobbio maintains the character of a medieval village nestled the Trebbia valley. Ernest Hemingway described the Val Trebbia as 'the most beautiful in the world,' and with views like this, who could argue with him?

意大利博比奥

在意大利时尚和设计之都米兰和传说中的海城市热那亚之间,你会发现这个意大利北部的小河镇。自古以来,这里就有人居住,包括罗马人,但当修道院于7世纪建成时,这座城镇真正开始繁荣起来。在中世纪的大部分时间里,博比奥修道院及其巨大的图书馆使该镇成为宗教、文化和学习的中心。

如今,博比奥是一个固定的旅游站,也许最著名的是它的老桥,或者叫Vecchio桥(不要和佛罗伦萨的Vecchio桥混淆)。博比奥的旧桥横跨特雷比亚河,有11座大小不等的拱门,因其形状不规则,通常被称为“驼背桥”(Ponte Gobbo)。

博比奥仍然是一个被时间冻结的城镇的珠宝盒。博比奥有许多小教堂、简陋的房屋和鹅卵石街道,保持着特雷比亚山谷一个中世纪村庄的特色。欧内斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)将瓦尔·特雷比娅(Val Trebbia)描述为“世界上最美的”,有这样的观点,谁能和他争论呢?

世界著名气泡酒产地普罗塞克山丘, 意大利威尼托 Farra di Soligo in the Prosecco Hills of Veneto, Italy (© Olimpio Fantuz/Sime/eStock Photo)

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世界著名气泡酒产地普罗塞克山丘,意大利威尼托 Farra di Soligo in the Prosecco Hills of Veneto, Italy (© Olimpio Fantuz/Sime/eStock Photo)

Autumn in the Prosecco Hills

It's fall here in the Prosecco Hills of northeastern Italy. We're just outside Farra di Soligo, a village about 30 miles northwest of Venice. This region is known for growing the glera grape used to make the white wine called prosecco. Once a humble sparkling wine, and considered a poor cousin to Champagne, prosecco now eclipses Champagne in global popularity. More than 600 million bottles of prosecco were produced in Italy in 2018, about twice the amount of Champagne.

Of those 600 million bottles produced a year, about 90 million bottles of prosecco come from the Prosecco Hills region. Like most Italian grape-growing areas, the Prosecco Hills boast a spectacular landscape. Small plots of grapes have grown on narrow grassy terraces known as 'ciglioni' since the 17th century. From above, the ciglioni produce a checkerboard effect with vines growing both horizontally along and vertical to the hillsides. Some plots even use the 19th-century 'bellussera' technique of training the grapevines to grow up along trees. This region is so distinctive, it was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2019.

普洛塞科

它落在意大利东北部的普罗塞科山上。我们就在法拉·迪·索利戈(Farra di Soligo)外面,这是一个距离威尼斯西北约30英里的村庄。这一地区以种植用来酿造白葡萄酒普罗塞科(prosecco)的格雷拉葡萄而闻名。普罗塞科一度是一种谦逊的起泡酒,被认为是香槟的穷表亲,但现在它在全球的受欢迎程度超过了香槟。2018年,意大利生产了6亿多瓶prosecco,约为香槟产量的两倍。

在每年生产的6亿瓶产品中,约有9000万瓶来自prosecco Hills地区。像大多数意大利葡萄种植区一样,普洛塞科山拥有壮观的景观。自17世纪以来,小片葡萄种植在被称为“ciglioni”的狭窄草地梯田上。从上面看,ciglioni产生了棋盘效应,藤蔓沿山坡水平和垂直生长。一些葡萄园甚至采用19世纪的“贝卢斯拉”技术,训练葡萄沿着木生长。该地区非常独特,2019年被联合国教科文组织命名为世界遗产。

弗拉维亚港,意大利撒丁岛 Porto Flavia, Sardinia, Italy (© Visualframing/Adobe Stock)

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弗拉维亚意大利撒丁岛 Porto Flavia, Sardinia, Italy (© Visualframing/Adobe Stock)

A cliffside harbor in Sardinia

The mining industry in Sardinia, Italy was booming in the early 20th century, as European nations looked to reconstruct from the damages of World War I. But Sardinian faced myriad logistical issues trying to export the zinc, lead and other minerals that were in high demand. Miners on the Italian island were using modern techniques to extract more and more ore, but it wasn't until 1924, when engineer Cesare Vecelli designed and built the mining hub along the cliffs in Porto Flavia, that getting product off the island matched their ability to extract it.

Before Vecelli's architectural marvel at Porto Flavia began operating, ore was often hand carried in wicker baskets and loaded by workers onto awaiting boats, a process that was slow, expensive, and often dangerous. But Vecelli's innovation allowed miners to lower ore directly onto ships waiting in the harbor below, saving time and cutting costs by up to 70%. Porto Flavia, which Vecelli named after his daughter, wasn't purely an exercise in productivity. The engineer added design flourishes including a concrete tower, as well as an arched doorway and windows, giving the port a certain elegance not normally associated with a mining hub. These days, Porto Flavia lives on as a UNESCO-protected tourist attraction.

撒丁悬崖港口

意大利撒丁岛的采矿业在20世纪初蓬勃发展,因为欧洲国家希望从第一次世界大战的破坏中重建。但撒丁岛在出口锌、铅和其他需求量大的矿物时面临着无数的物流问题。意大利岛上的矿工们正在使用现代技术开采越来越多的矿石,但直到1924年工程师塞萨尔·维切利(Cesare Vecelli)沿着弗拉维亚港(Porto Flavia)的悬崖设计并建造了采矿枢纽,从岛上获取的产品才与他们的开采能力相匹配。

在维切利在弗拉维亚港的建筑奇迹开始运作之前,矿石通常用柳条筐手工搬运,由工人装载到等待的只上,这一过程缓慢、昂贵,而且往往很危险。但维切利的创新使采矿者能够直接将矿石卸到下面港口等待的船只上,从而节省时间并将成本降低70%。维切利以其女儿的名字命名的弗拉维亚港,并不是纯粹的生产力运动。这位工程师还增加了一些设计元素,包括一座混凝土塔,以及一个拱形的门道和窗户,给港口带来了一种通常与采矿枢纽不相关的优雅。如今,弗拉维亚港仍然是联合国教科文组织保护的旅游胜地。

蒙特城堡,意大利普利亚大区 Castel del Monte, Apulia, Italy (© Toni Spagone/Alamy)

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蒙特城堡意大利普利亚大区 Castel del Monte, Apulia, Italy (© Toni Spagone/Alamy)

An octagonal architectural treasure

Built in the 1240s by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in southeast Italy, Castel del Monte (Castle of the Mount) features an unusual octagonal design. Eight stone walls stretch between eight octagonal towers and enclose an octagonal courtyard. Each of the two floors also has eight trapezoidal rooms. Acclaimed and protected as a World Heritage Site in 1966, the castle symbolically reflects a harmonious integration of classical Roman, Arabic, and medieval architecture and design—and to some, its octagonal symmetry suggests a connection between heaven and earth.

Its original purpose is unclear. Without a drawbridge, moat, or curtain wall to protect it, it was clearly not a defensive fortress, and its lack of stables call into question its function as a hunting lodge. Over the centuries it has served as a prison and as a refuge from the plague. But whatever the emperor's intention, he left a captivating monument that still enchants today.

八角形建筑瑰宝

蒙特城堡(上城堡)建于1240年代,由神圣罗马皇帝腓特烈二世在意大利东南部建造,具有不同寻常的八角形设计。八堵石墙在八座八角形塔楼之间延伸,围绕着一个八角形庭院。两层楼各有八个梯形房间。1966年,这座城堡被誉为世界遗产,并受到保护。它象征性地反映了古典罗马、阿拉伯和中世纪建筑与设计的和谐结合,对某些人来说,它的八角对称性暗示着天地之间的联系。

其最初目的尚不清楚。由于没有吊桥、护城或幕墙的保护,它显然不是一个防御堡垒,而且它没有马厩,这使它作为狩猎小屋的功能受到质疑。几个世纪以来,它一直被用作监狱和躲避瘟疫的避难所。但不管皇帝的意图是什么,他留下了一座迷人的纪念碑,至今仍令人着迷。

奥提伽,西西里岛锡拉库萨海岸附近的小岛,意大利 Ortygia, a small island off the coast of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy (© DaLiu/Shutterstock)

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奥提伽,西西里岛锡拉库萨海岸附近的小意大利 Ortygia, a small island off the coast of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy (© DaLiu/Shutterstock)

A center of antiquity on the Mediterranean

This bird's-eye view lets us take in the charms of Ortygia, a small island just offshore from Syracuse, on Sicily's east coast. Ortygia is considered Syracuse's 'old town' and the historical heart of the city. A narrow channel separates the island from Syracuse and two bridges connect Ortygia to mainland Sicily. Ancient Greeks first colonized this island in the 8th century BCE, and the town is brimming with 2,700 years of history. Walk Ortygia's web of narrow streets and you'll see Greek and Roman ruins, medieval Norman buildings, and examples of Baroque architecture as well.

A Homeric texts Hymn tells of claim the goddess Leto, who stopped at Ortygia to give birth to her twins, Artemis and Apollo. Visitors today can pay homage to the mythology with a visit to the Temple of Apollo, which dates from the 6th century BCE, making it the oldest Doric temple in Sicily. But for some, the most magnificent attraction to Ortygia is the cerulean Mediterranean Sea, which surrounds the island in a shimmery blue.

地中海上的古代中心

这张鸟瞰图让我们领略了奥蒂吉亚的魅力,奥蒂吉亚是西西里岛东海岸锡拉丘兹附近的一个小岛。奥蒂吉亚被认为是锡拉丘兹的“老城”和城市的历史中心。一条狭窄的水道将该岛与锡拉丘兹分隔开来,两座将奥尔蒂加岛与西西里岛大陆连接起来。古希腊人在公元前8世纪首次在这个岛上建立殖民地,这个城镇有2700年的历史。走在奥尔蒂加狭窄的街道网,你会看到希腊和罗马遗迹中世纪的诺曼建筑,以及巴洛克建筑的例子。

荷马经文的一首赞美诗讲述了女神勒托的主张,她在奥蒂吉亚停下来生下了她的双胞胎,阿耳特弥斯和阿波罗。今天的游客可以通过参观阿波罗神庙来向神话致敬,阿波罗神庙可以追溯到公元前6世纪,是西西里岛最古老的多立克神庙。但对一些人来说,奥蒂吉亚最吸引人的地方是蔚蓝的地中海,它以闪烁的蓝色环绕着奥蒂吉亚岛。

鸟瞰罗卡附近的Grotta della Poesia,意大利莱切 Aerial view of the Grotta della Poesia (Poetry's Cave) near Roca, Lecce, Italy (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

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鸟瞰罗卡附近的Grotta della Poesia,意大利莱切 Aerial view of the Grotta della Poesia (Poetry's Cave) near Roca, Lecce, Italy (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

Pretty poetic for a pit

Taking a bird's-eye view along the coast of Italy's bootheel, you'll spot many coves and caves like this one, the Grotta della Poesia. In English that's Poetry's Cave, a sea-flooded sinkhole so named for the ancient poets who—legend has it—were bemused by a beautiful princess who often came here for a dip.

Nowadays it's a popular spot for all water lovers, regardless of royal standing. Inside the sinkhole, an underground cavern carries the clear waters out to sea, beckoning the most intrepid swimmers and scuba divers toward the open Adriatic.

很有诗意

沿着意大利鞋跟海岸鸟瞰,你会发现许多像这样的海洞穴,Grotta della Poesia。在英语中,那是诗的穴,一个被海水淹没的大坑,以古代诗人的名字命名,传说是因为一位美丽的公主经常来这里泡个澡。

如今,无论皇室地位如何,这里都是所有爱水人士的热门去处。在深坑内,一个地下洞穴将清澈的海水带到大海中,吸引着最勇敢的游泳者和潜水者朝着开阔的亚得里亚海前进。

蒙塔尔巴诺埃利科纳,意大利西西里岛 Montalbano Elicona, Messina, Sicily, Italy (© Antonino Bartuccio/SOPA Collection/Offset by Shutterstock)

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蒙塔尔巴诺埃利科纳,意大利西西里岛 Montalbano Elicona, Messina, Sicily, Italy (© Antonino Bartuccio/SOPA Collection/Offset by Shutterstock)

In Sicily, history is everywhere

Today we're in Montalbano Elicona on the island of Sicily. It's known for the very old castle at the crest of the hill, as well as the quaint medieval village below. It's no wonder that Montalbano Elicona has been called one of the most beautiful towns in all of Italy. The castle itself is believed to have been built in the 13th century by medieval power broker Frederick II of Swabia. He wore many hats, including King of Sicily, Holy Roman Emperor, and—as far-fetched as it sounds—the King of Jerusalem, a title he claimed after conquering that city during the Sixth Crusade. The castle was originally designed as a fortress, but it also served as a summer residence for Frederick and other rulers who followed him.

Surrounding the castle are several other interesting historical sites, including the Church of St. Catherine, known for its Romanesque portal built in the 14th century, its mix of Catalan and renaissance architecture, marble statues of St. Catherine and St. Nicholas Bishop, and a representation of the Last Supper by artist Guido Reni. Also of note is the nearby Argimusco plateau, where an array of large oblong stones, including one which is said to resemble an eagle, have long prompted speculation that they were placed there by members of a prehistoric island culture. However, scientists now believe that these so-called megaliths of Argimusco, sometimes referred to as the Stonehenge of Sicily, are actually of natural origin, and the unique boulder shapes are simply the result of centuries of wind erosion.

西西里,历史无处不在

今天我们在西西里上的蒙塔尔巴诺埃利科纳。它以山顶上非常古老的城堡以及下面古色古香的中世纪村庄而闻名。难怪蒙塔尔巴诺·艾利科纳被称为意大利最美丽的城镇之一。城堡本身被认为是建于13世纪的中世纪权力掮客弗雷德里克二世的斯瓦比亚。他戴着许多帽子,包括神圣罗马皇帝西西里国王,以及听起来很牵强的耶路撒冷国王,这是他在第六次十字军东征中征服耶路撒冷后获得的头衔。这座城堡最初是作为要塞设计的,但它也作为弗雷德里克和其他跟随他的统治者的避暑住所。

城堡周围还有其他一些有趣的历史遗迹,包括圣凯瑟琳教堂(Church of St.Catherine),因其建于14世纪的罗马式大门而闻名,它融合了加泰罗尼亚和文艺复兴时期的建筑,圣凯瑟琳和圣尼古拉斯主教的大理石雕像,以及艺术家吉多·雷尼(Guido Reni)对《最后的晚餐》的描绘。同样值得注意的是附近的阿尔吉穆斯科高原,那里有一排长方形的大石头,其中一块据说像鹰,长期以来一直有人猜测它们是史前岛屿文化的成员放在那里的。然而,科学家们现在认为,这些所谓的阿吉姆斯科巨石,有时被称为西西里巨石阵,实际上是自然起源的,这些独特的巨石形状只是几个世纪风蚀的结果。

2013年正在喷发的埃特纳火山,意大利西西里岛 Mount Etna erupting in 2013, Sicily, Italy (© Wead/Alamy Live News)

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2013年正在喷发的埃特纳火山意大利西西里岛 Mount Etna erupting in 2013, Sicily, Italy (© Wead/Alamy Live News)

A sizzling summit hides in the clouds

Seen here with its explosive summit socked away in the clouds, Mount Etna towers over the Italian isle of Sicily as the tallest volcano in Europe—and maybe the crankiest, given its near-constant eruptions. The island peak has been highly active for perhaps half a million years and can still be counted on for a spectacular eruption every few years. This photograph shows Etna erupting in 2013.

云层中隐藏着一座炙热的

埃特纳火山在意大利西西里上空耸立,是欧洲最高的火山,可能是最古怪的火山,因为它几乎一直在喷发。岛上的山峰已经高度活跃了大约50万年,仍然可以指望每隔几年就有一次壮观的喷发。这张照片显示埃特纳火山在2013年喷发。