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纳克什鲁斯塔姆遗址,伊朗波斯波利斯 Naqsh-e Rustam archaeological site near Persepolis, Iran (© mshirani/Shutterstock)

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纳克什鲁斯塔姆遗址伊朗波斯波利斯 Naqsh-e Rustam archaeological site near Persepolis, Iran (© mshirani/Shutterstock)

国际考古日 International Archaeology Day


Naqsh-e Rostam是一座雕刻在伊朗西南部山区的古代墓地,是古代波斯最早繁荣的文明之一的门户。四位阿契美尼德国王的陵墓(你可以在这里看到其中三位)以高高地雕刻在悬崖表面的岩石浮雕为标志。这个遗址及其周围地区对伊朗及其人民的历史具有重大意义。它们也是考古学在理解我们的过去方面所起作用的辉范例。每年10月的第三个星期六,我们都会停下来庆祝并表彰考古学家作为人类历史解释者的贡献。

墓地是由坟墓和墓地组成的综合体,字面意思是“死者之城”这家离法尔斯省的西拉市很近。其中一座坟墓被铭文确定为大流士一世(又名大流士大帝)的安息之地,其他坟墓被认为是大流士的儿子薛西斯一世、阿尔塔克西斯一世和大流士二世的坟墓,这些人是公元前522-330年阿契美尼德王朝的领导人。纳什赫·罗斯坦也是描绘后来萨珊帝国国王的浮雕之乡,萨珊王朝是7世纪和8世纪穆斯林征服之前的最后一个伊朗帝国。只有几百码远的地方是被称为Naqsh-e Rajab的考古遗址,更多的石雕描绘了三位萨珊王朝国王和一位大祭司。虽然这些文明已经消亡,但它们创造的东西是人类历史的永久记录。

International Archaeology Day

Naqsh-e Rostam is an ancient necropolis carved into the mountains of southwestern Iran, a porthole into one of the earliest civilizations to flourish in ancient Persia. The tombs of four Achaemenid kings (you can see three of them here) are marked by rock reliefs carved high above the ground into the cliff face. This site and the area around it are of huge significance to the history of Iran and its people. They're also a shining example of the role archaeology plays in understanding our past. On the third Saturday of every October, we pause to celebrate and recognize the contributions of archaeologists as interpreters of human history.

A necropolis is a complex of tombs and burial plots, literally translated as a 'city of the dead.' This one is close to the city of Shiraz in Fars Province. One of the tombs is identified by an inscription as being the resting place of Darius I, aka Darius the Great, and the others are believed to be the tombs of Darius' son, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II, leaders during the Achaemenid dynasty from 522-330 BCE. Naqsh-e Rostam is also home to relief carvings depicting kings of the later Sassanian Empire, the last Iranian empire before the Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries. Only a few hundred yards away is the archaeological site known as Naqsh-e Rajab, with more rock carvings depicting three Sassanid kings and a high priest. While these civilizations have faded, what they created endures as a permanent record of human history.

被丛林包围着的玛雅古城卡拉克穆尔遗址,墨西哥坎佩切 Ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Calakmul surrounded by the jungle, Campeche, Mexico (© Alfredo Matus/Shutterstock)

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被丛林包围着的玛雅古城卡拉克穆尔遗址墨西哥坎佩切 Ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Calakmul surrounded by the jungle, Campeche, Mexico (© Alfredo Matus/Shutterstock)

The ruins of a Mayan superpower

Deep in the jungle of southern Mexico lay the ruins of a city that thrived for centuries before it was abandoned more than 1,000 years ago. Calakmul was once one of the two dueling superpowers—along with Tikal—of the Classical Mayan civilization. At its height, around 1,200 years ago, the city of Calakmul had a population of about 50,000 people, but the kingdom as a whole numbered more than 1.5 million. Archaeologists have uncovered 6,750 structures here—the largest is this pyramid temple, called, simply, 'Structure 2.' It's one of the tallest and most massive remaining structures from that highly advanced culture. The ruins of the city proper cover nearly eight square miles in the jungle and the kingdom once ruled over settlements as far as 90 miles away.

All the more amazing, then, that it was apparently lost to history until an American botanist named Cyrus L. Lundell discovered it when flying over the jungle on a survey of the area in December 1931. A few expeditions were sent to explore it over the next few years, but it went largely unstudied until the 1980s. Calakmul is now recognized as one of the most important archeological sites in southern Mexico.




拉斯梅德拉斯的古罗马金矿遗址,西班牙莱昂 Ancient Roman gold mining site of Las Médulas, León, Spain (© DEEPOL by plainpicture/David Santiago Garcia)

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拉斯梅德拉斯的古罗马金矿遗址西班牙莱昂 Ancient Roman gold mining site of Las Médulas, León, Spain (© DEEPOL by plainpicture/David Santiago Garcia)

The largest gold mine of the roman empire

This landscape might look natural, but it is not. At least not at a 100%. What you can see in our picture today is Las Médulas Cultural Park, in León, Spain, an ancient roman gold mining site which was as well the largest open pit one of the whole Empire.

Romans started exploiting it in the 1st century and continued doing so for 150 years at least. They removed more than 500 million cubic meters of earth and transformed the landscape forever. To extract gold they dug a complex system of tunnels inside the hills and then poured water in it to fragment the rock. It is estimated that more than 20.000 people worked in this site.

The exploitation was definitively abandoned in the 3rd century, and from that moment nature recovered what was its own. Oak trees and holm oaks grew again, and hundreds of chestnuts trees were planted. Wildlife includes roe deers, wildcats and boars, among other species.