标签 国家公园 下的文章

从观景台俯瞰格雷梅,格雷梅国家公园,土耳其卡帕多西亚省 View of Göreme from an observation deck, Göreme National Park, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

发布于 , 15 次浏览

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从观景台俯瞰格雷梅,格雷梅国家公园土耳其卡帕多西亚省 View of Göreme from an observation deck, Göreme National Park, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

那些生动的岩石 Living rock

Göreme, in Cappadocia, Turkey

Both natural wonders and historic landmarks, the 'fairy chimneys' of Göreme may suggest the fantastical dwellings of an alien species or an illustration from a Dr. Seuss book. These and similar rock formations are known by many names—hoodoos, tent rocks, earth pyramids, as well as fairy chimneys—and are typically found in dry, hot areas. Here in Cappadocia, in south-central Turkey, they were formed when a thick layer of volcanic ash solidified over millions of years into soft, porous rock called tuff that was overlaid by hard basalt. Cracks in the basalt allowed wind and rain to gradually wash away the softer bottom layer, leaving the hard basalt to cap tall columns of the tuff. The result is these unusual, often beautiful—and perhaps puzzling—formations that spread across the Anatolian plain.

This part of modern day Turkey has been inhabited since at least the Hittite era, between 1800 and 1200 BCE, and possibly for much longer. Innumerable ancient empires fought over the region, with Hittites, Assyrians, Neo-Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans each laying claim to Anatolia at times. To escape this dangerous world, the locals learned to burrow into the hillsides for protection. Today, a visitor can see the vast, complex, interconnected caves in which societies thrived and sheltered for millennia. Göreme National Park was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 and is now a popular tourist destination.

格勒梅,土耳其卡帕多西亚

无论是自然奇观还是历史地标,戈雷米的“童话烟囱”都可能暗示着一个外来物种的奇幻住所,或是苏斯博士中的插图。这些和类似的岩层以许多名字而闻名于世,如丛、帐篷岩、地球金字塔,以及仙女烟囱,通常出现在干燥炎热的地区。在土耳其中南部的卡帕多西亚,一层厚厚的火山灰经过数百万年的固化,形成了一种叫做凝灰岩的软多孔岩石,上面覆盖着坚硬的玄武岩。玄武岩中的裂缝使风和雨逐渐冲走较软的底层,留下坚硬的玄武岩覆盖凝灰岩的高柱。结果就是这些不寻常的、通常美丽的、也许令人费解的地层遍布安纳托利亚平原。

现代土耳其的这一部分至少从赫梯时代(公元前1800年至1200年)起就有人居住,而且可能会更久。无数的古代帝国为该地区而战,赫梯人、亚述人、新亚述人、波斯人、希腊人和罗马人有时都声称对安纳托利亚拥有主权。为了逃离这个危险的世界,当地人学会了在坡上挖保护自己。今天,游客可以看到巨大、复杂、相互连接的洞穴,数千年来,社会在这些洞穴中繁衍生息并得到庇护。戈雷米国家公园于1985年被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产名录,现在是一个受欢迎的旅游目的地。

半穹顶景观点上空的银河,优胜美地国家公园,加利福尼亚州 Milky Way rising above Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, California (© Cory Marshall/Tandem Stills + Motion)

发布于 , 28 次浏览

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半穹顶景观点上空的银河优胜美地国家公园加利福尼亚州 Milky Way rising above Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, California (© Cory Marshall/Tandem Stills + Motion)

你能把灯关掉吗? Could you turn off the lights?

Dark Sky Week

During International Dark Sky Week, we're counting ourselves lucky to have this spectacular nighttime view, considering the astonishing fact that 83% of the global population lives under a light-polluted sky. Unneeded artificial light is classified as a pollutant and has been proven to have harmful side effects. Not only does it waste money and energy, it also disrupts plants and animals, is believed to impact the climate, and blocks our view of the universe.

Encouraging people to get away from artificial light is one of the goals of International Dark Sky Week, and today's photo shows just how magnificent that can be. Here, we're treated to a beautiful view of the Milky Way from Yosemite National Park in California. Yosemite is part of a network of national parks monitoring dark night skies to gather a complete data set of light pollution. They've learned that 'two-thirds of Americans cannot see the Milky Way from their backyard, and if current light pollution trends continue, there will be almost no dark skies left in the contiguous United States by 2025.'

Luckily, dark sky is a recoverable resource. There are ways to reduce our light use and improve the view of the night sky for everyone. Think about it over the course of the next week, preferably while gazing at a night sky undisturbed by light pollution—or at least a beautiful photo of one.

黑暗天空周

在国际黑暗天空周期间,考虑到全球83%的人口生活在轻度污染的天空下这一令人震惊的事实,我们认为自己有幸拥有这一壮观的夜景。不需要的人造被归类为污染物,并已被证明具有有害的副作用。它不仅浪费金钱和能源,还扰乱动植物,被认为会影响气候,阻碍我们对宇宙的看法。

鼓励人们远离人造光是国际黑暗天空周的目标之一,今天的照片展示了这是多么壮观。在这里,我们可以在加利福尼亚州约塞米蒂国家公园欣赏到银系的美景。约塞米蒂是国家公园网络的一部分,该网络监测黑夜天空,以收集光污染的完整数据集。他们了解到,“三分之二的美国人无法从自家后院看到银河系,如果目前的光污染趋势继续下去,到2025年,毗邻的美国将几乎没有黑暗的天空。”

幸运的是,黑暗的天空是一种可回收的资源。有一些方法可以减少我们的光线使用,改善每个人的夜空视野。在接下来的一周里好好想想,最好是在凝视没有光污染的夜空时,或者至少是一张美丽的照片。

十六湖国家公园,克罗地亚 Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia (© Janne Kahila/Getty Images)

发布于 , 28 次浏览

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十六国家公园克罗地亚 Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia (© Janne Kahila/Getty Images)

巴尔干湖上的木板路 Boardwalk over Balkan lakes

Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia

In a country more famous for its coastline, about a million visitors each year venture inland to amble along these boardwalks and marvel at spectacular lakes and mountains. Plitvice Lakes National Park is the oldest and largest of Croatia's national parks. The big attraction is the series of 16 descending, turquoise-colored lakes, connected by subterranean karst rivers, and above ground by streams and waterfalls. The lakes are separated by natural dams of travertine, which is deposited by moss, algae, and bacteria. The water changes color from green to azure to gray depending on the angle of the light and the density of minerals and organisms in the water. About 11 miles of wooden boardwalk make it easy for people to wander among the lakes, falls, and caves that are open to visitors year-round.

The 115-square-mile park was established in 1949 in what is now central Croatia, near the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1979, Plitvice's unique beauty put it on the list UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The lakes seem to magically disappear into the moss-covered earth, and then reappear downstream, proof enough that these woods are indeed enchanted.

克罗地亚的普利特维兹湖国家公园

在一个以海岸线闻名的国家,每年大约有100万游客冒险到内陆,沿着这些木板路漫步,欣赏壮观的湖泊和山脉。普利特维兹湖国家公园是克罗地亚最古老、最大的国家公园。最大的吸引力是16个下降的绿松石色湖泊,由地下喀斯特流连接,地面上由溪流和瀑布连接。湖泊之间由苔藓、藻类和细菌沉积的钙华天然坝隔开。根据线的角度以及水中矿物质和生物体的密度,水的颜色会从绿色变为蓝色再变为灰色。大约11英里长的木板路使人们可以轻松地在全年开放的湖泊、瀑布和洞穴中漫步。

这座115平方英里的公园建于1949年,位于现在的克罗地亚中部,靠近波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那边境。1979年,普利特维奇独特的美景将其列入联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录。这些湖泊似乎神奇地消失在苔藓覆盖的土地上,然后再次出现在下游,这足以证明这些森林确实被施了魔法。

以新西兰南岛奥拉基/库克山国家公园为背景的特卡波湖 Lake Tekapo with Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park in the background on New Zealand's South Island (© Sophie Dover/Getty Images) (© Sophie Dover/Getty Images)

发布于 , 83 次浏览

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新西兰奥拉基/库克国家公园为背景的特卡波 Lake Tekapo with Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park in the background on New Zealand's South Island (© Sophie Dover/Getty Images) (© Sophie Dover/Getty Images)

蓝色新西兰 Blue Zealand

Lake Tekapo, New Zealand

The striking electric-blue waters of Lake Tekapo are caused by extremely finely ground rock particles suspended in the melted waters of glaciers in the nearby Southern Alps. Snowmelt from the range feeds two similarly stunning lakes in the Mackenzie Basin of New Zealand's South Island, Lake Pukaki and Lake Ohau, which share their neighbor's remarkable turquoise color and mountainous backdrops. New Zealand's highest peak, Aoraki/Mount Cook, reigns in Mount Cook National Park, seen in the background of this image.

The name Tekapo is a misspelling of the Māori word Takapō, which means 'to leave in haste at night.' But if you are one of the region's many visitors, you may find the nighttime even more mesmerizing than the day. Lake Tekapo is a certified Dark Sky Reserve, one of the world's largest. With night skies almost completely free of light pollution, stargazing doesn't get much more vibrant, and tours cater to manuhiri (visitors) interested in astro-tourism. If that's not reason enough to stay the night, the area's abundant skiing and fishing opportunities might be. There's certainly no need to leave in a rush.

新西兰特卡波湖

特卡波湖惊人的电蓝色海水是由悬浮在附近南阿尔卑斯山冰川融化水中的极细的岩石颗粒造成的。来自该山脉的融为新西兰南岛麦肯齐盆地的两个同样令人惊叹的湖泊——普卡基湖和奥豪湖提供了水源,这两个湖泊共享着其邻居引人注目的绿松石色和多山的背景。新西兰最高峰奥拉基/库克山位于库克山国家公园,如图背景所示。

Tekapo这个名字是毛利人单词Takapō的拼错,意思是“晚上匆忙离开”但如果你是该地区众多游客中的一员,你可能会发现夜间比白天更迷人。特卡波湖是世界上最大的黑天空保护区之一。由于夜空几乎完全没有污染,观星活动也没有变得更加活跃,旅游也迎合了对天文旅游感兴趣的游客。如果这还不足以作为过夜的理由,那么该地区丰富的滑雪和钓鱼机会可能会更大。当然没有必要匆忙离开。

冰川湾国家公园里的兰普鲁冰川,美国阿拉斯加州 Lamplugh Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (© Andrew Peacock/Getty Images)

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 冰川国家公园里的兰普鲁冰川,美国阿拉斯加州 Lamplugh Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (© Andrew Peacock/Getty Images)

古老的冰川与大海相遇的地方 Where ancient ice meets the sea

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

Think of this special spot as the place where two different Alaskas meet—its vast icy north and its verdant maritime south. Glacier Bay is named for this area's dominant feature, the rivers of ice that carve the landscape and periodically calve icebergs into the sea. On February 26, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge declared much of the land around the bay a national monument. But the protected area was greatly expanded in 1980, when a 3.3-million-acre expanse of glaciers, fjords, rainforest, coastline, and mountain peaks was named a national park and preserve.

Pictured here is Lamplugh Glacier, one of the relatively few tidewater glaciers in the park; the vast majority are found inland. Lamplugh is known for its intense blue color—ice and water absorb the red wavelength of white light and transmit blue light, which is what we end up seeing. The thicker and more pure the ice, the more blue it appears.

冰川湾国家公园

把这个特殊的地方想象成两个不同的阿拉斯加人在广阔的冰覆盖的北方和苍翠的海洋南面相遇的地方。冰川湾是以该地区的主要特征命名的,冰的流切割景观,并周期性地将冰山崩解入海中。1925年2月26日,卡尔文·柯立芝总统宣布海湾周围的大部分土地为国家纪念碑。但1980年,保护区得到了极大的扩展,当时一片330万英亩的冰川、峡湾、雨林海岸线和峰被命名为国家公园和保护区。

这里的图片是兰普卢冰川,公园里相对较少的潮水冰川之一;绝大多数是在内陆发现的。Lamplugh以其强烈的蓝色而闻名,冰和水吸收白的红色波长并传输蓝光,这就是我们最终看到的。冰越纯,越厚。

克卢恩国家公园保护区的山脉和冰川,加拿大育空地区 Saint Elias Mountains and Kaskawulsh Glacier in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon, Canada (© Design Pics Inc/Alamy)

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克卢恩国家公园保护区的山脉冰川加拿大育空地区 Saint Elias Mountains and Kaskawulsh Glacier in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon, Canada (© Design Pics Inc/Alamy)

Kluane National Park

What looks here like an ice road for 50-foot-tall truckers is really Kaskawulsh Glacier in Canada's Kluane National Park. This corner of the Yukon is home to the largest ice field on Earth outside of the poles, with the slow, steady flow of more than 2,000 glaciers continually carving these vast canyons amid the peaks.

Speaking of peaks, glance up and you'll see the Yukon is also paradise for mountain lovers. And Kluane is its pinnacle, literally: Located within the park is Mount Logan, the highest mountain in Canada (and second-highest on the continent after Alaska's Denali).

库隆尼国家公园

对于50英尺高的卡车司机来说,这里看起来像是一条冰路,实际上是加拿大克鲁恩国家公园中的卡斯卡沃尔什冰川。育空地区的这个角落是地球上除极地以外最大的冰原的所在地,2000多条缓慢而稳定的冰川不断地在峰之间雕刻着这些巨大的峡谷

说到山峰,抬头一看,你会发现育空地区也是高山爱好者的天堂。Kluane是它的巅峰,字面意思是:位于公园内的是加拿大最高的山脉洛根山(仅次于阿拉斯加的德纳利山,是该大陆第二高的山)。

蓝山国家公园里的萤火虫,澳大利亚 Glowworms in Blue Mountains National Park, Australia (© Leelakajonkij/Getty Images)

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国家公园里的萤火虫澳大利亚 Glowworms in Blue Mountains National Park, Australia (© Leelakajonkij/Getty Images)

Glowworm caves in Australia

Down under the land in the Land Down Under, cave explorers may find these subterranean spaces illuminated by an unlikely light source. Fungus gnat larvae—more affectionately known as glowworms—speckle the walls and ceilings of caverns here in Australia during the warm season from December to March. To humans they're hypnotizingly harmless and add a little otherworldly charm to the caves in such places as Blue Mountains National Park, as seen in our photo. But if you're a fly or mosquito, beware! Glowworms dangle tiny, sticky silk strands that ensnare winged insects flying toward what looks like a starry night sky, but is in fact the cave ceiling, covered in glowworms, patiently waiting to reel in a deceived fly.

澳大利亚的萤火虫洞穴

在地下,穴探险家可能会发现这些地下空间被一种不太可能的源照亮。在12月至3月的温暖季节,真菌小昆虫幼虫(更亲切地称为萤火虫)在澳大利亚洞穴的墙壁和天板上散布斑点。在我们的照片中可以看到,对人类来说,它们无害得令人着迷,为蓝山国家公园等地的洞穴增添了一点超凡脱俗的魅力。但如果你是一只苍蝇或蚊子,小心!萤火虫悬挂着细小的、粘乎乎的丝线,诱捕着飞向星空的有翼昆虫,但事实上是洞穴的天花板,上面覆盖着萤火虫,耐心地等待着一只受骗的苍蝇。