标签 湖 下的文章

洛桑日内瓦湖上空的暴风雨,瑞典 Stormy sky over Lake Geneva in Lausanne, Switzerland (© Suradech Singhanat/Shutterstock)

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洛桑日内瓦湖上空的暴风雨瑞典 Stormy sky over Lake Geneva in Lausanne, Switzerland (© Suradech Singhanat/Shutterstock)

一个黑暗的暴风雨之夜 On a dark and stormy night...

弗兰肯斯坦星期五

如果看到日内瓦上空的风暴云聚集,你会陷入一种阴暗而沉闷的情绪,那么当玛丽·莱构思这个将成为她开创性作品的故事时,你会对她的心境有一个了解。虽然雪莱写了几部历史小说和旅游籍,但正是这个关于一个怪诞生物的可怕故事给她留下了遗产。

今天,也是十月的最后一个星期五,是《弗兰肯斯坦星期五》,这是对雪莱1818年小说的一次庆祝,这部小说讲述了一位医生救死扶伤的故事,许多人认为这是第一部科幻小说。雪莱在法国-瑞士边境阿尔卑斯山北部的日内瓦湖为“弗兰肯斯坦”(又名“现代普罗米修斯”)构思了概念。1816年,她在这里度过了一个异常寒冷和潮湿的夏天,她的未来丈夫珀西·比什·雪莱和拜伦勋爵都是诗人。这群人被关在室内,互相挑战,想出鬼故事。玛丽很快写了一篇短篇小说,后来成为了《弗兰肯斯坦》,在一个漆黑、暴风雨的夜晚,日内瓦湖的阴暗和寒冷在很大程度上激发了她的灵感。

Frankenstein Friday

If the sight of storm clouds gathering over Lake Geneva puts you in a dark and ponderous mood, then you have an idea of Mary Shelley's frame of mind when she conceived the story that would become her seminal work. While Shelley wrote several historical novels and travel books, it was this macabre story of a grotesque creature that made her legacy.

Today and every final Friday of October is Frankenstein Friday, a celebration of Shelley's 1818 novel about a doctor who reanimates the dead—a tale of terror that many also think of as the first science fiction novel.  Shelley concocted the concept for 'Frankenstein' (aka 'The Modern Prometheus') here at Lake Geneva in the northern Alps on the French-Swiss border. She spent an unusually cold and wet summer here in 1816 with her future husband Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron, both poets. Confined indoors, the group challenged one another to come up with ghost stories. Mary quickly wrote the short story that would become 'Frankenstein,' inspired in no small part by the gloom and chill of Lake Geneva on one dark and stormy night.

基姆湖上的淑女岛,德国巴伐利亚州 Aerial view of Fraueninsel island in Chiemsee, Bavaria, Germany (© Malorny/Getty Images)

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基姆上的淑女德国巴伐利亚州 Aerial view of Fraueninsel island in Chiemsee, Bavaria, Germany (© Malorny/Getty Images)

“巴伐利亚海”中的岛屿 Island in the "Bavarian Sea"

Fraueninsel, Chiemsee, Bayern

Just 15.5 hectares in size, the Fraueninsel is still the second-largest island in the Chiemsee after the Herreninsel - admittedly, there are only three inland islands in total, and the tiny Krautinsel as the third in the group is also uninhabited. The car-free Fraueninsel, whose appearance is mainly characterized by the Benedictine monastery of Frauenchiemsee (also known as Frauenwörth), founded in 782, can be reached all year round with the passenger ships of the Chiemsee shipping company.

The only settlement on the Fraueninsel is called Frauenchiemsee. It consists of about 50 houses in which around 250 people live. The name of the place and the island are often used synonymously. Chiemsee, which covers almost 80 square kilometers, is Bavaria's largest lake and Germany's third-largest after Lake Constance and Müritz. In the absence of its own seashore, an affectionate nickname for Lake Chiemsee has emerged among the Bavarian population over time: it is very often referred to as the "Bavarian Sea".

Fraueninsel、切姆西、拜仁

面积只有15.5公顷的弗劳尼塞尔岛仍然是基姆塞岛上仅次于赫雷宁塞尔岛的第二大岛屿——不可否认,总共只有三个内陆岛屿,而作为该群岛第三大岛屿的小克劳蒂塞尔岛也无人居住。无车Fraueninsel的外观主要以建于782年的Frauenchiemsee(也称为Frauenwörth)本笃会修道院为特征,可以通过Chiemsee航运公司的客全年到达。

关于Fraueninsel的唯一解决方案称为Frauenchiemsee。它由大约50座房屋组成,其中约有250人居住。这个地方和这个岛的名字通常是同义词。基姆塞湖占地近80平方公里,是巴伐利亚州最大的湖泊,也是德国仅次于康斯坦斯湖和缪里兹湖的第三大湖。由于没有自己的海岸,随着时间的推移,基姆塞湖在巴伐利亚人中出现了一个亲切的昵称:它通常被称为“巴伐利亚海”。

被翡翠湾环绕的芬尼特岛,太浩湖,加利福尼亚 Fannette Island surrounded by Emerald Bay, Lake Tahoe, California (© Rachid Dahnoun/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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被翡翠环绕的芬尼特,太浩加利福尼亚 Fannette Island surrounded by Emerald Bay, Lake Tahoe, California (© Rachid Dahnoun/Tandem Stills + Motion)

这座岛海拔超过一英里 This island is more than a mile high

Fannette Island, Lake Tahoe

Tucked into a tiny bay of a grand alpine lake is this granite bump called Fannette Island, the only island in Lake Tahoe. The massive lake lies in the Sierra Nevada at an altitude of 6,225 feet, straddling the state line between California to the west and Nevada to the east with near perfect symmetry. Fannette Island is in Emerald Bay, on the California side of Tahoe's southwest shore. A narrow inlet, seen here at the top center of this image, connects Emerald Bay to the rest of the lake, whose natural beauty draws visitors in all seasons of the year.

Lake Tahoe is known as a mecca for boaters and skiers. Its frigid alpine water is renowned for its clarity. Despite the cold winter temperatures that provide the surrounding ski resorts with ample snowpack, the lake never freezes. The largest alpine lake in North America, Tahoe rivals even the Great Lakes by volume because it is so deep.

Ice-Age glaciers, nature's master sculptors, carved out Emerald Bay eons ago, and for some reason left behind in its wake tiny Fannette Island. It has been known by a half dozen names over the last century, before Fannette finally stuck. A short hike to the top, 150 feet above the water, will take you to the ruins of an old stone building called the 'Tea House,' constructed in the 1920s by the former owner of the island as well as a nearby estate on Emerald Bay called Vikingsholm (the property is now owned by the state and is a popular feature of Emerald Bay State Park). The tea house was used for exactly that, intimate tea parties in surroundings that would be nearly impossible to duplicate in any other home. While tea is no longer served atop the island, the alpine vistas are still there for the taking.

芬尼特岛,太浩湖

在一个巨大的阿尔卑斯湖的一个小海湾里,有一个岗岩突起,叫做范内特岛,它是太浩湖中唯一的一个岛。这个巨大的湖泊位于内华达山脉,海拔6225英尺,西跨加利福尼亚州,东临内华达州,几乎对称。范内特岛位于翡翠湾,在太浩岛西南海岸的加利福尼亚一侧。图中顶部中央有一个狭窄的小湾,将翡翠湾与湖的其余部分连接起来,湖的自然美景吸引了一年四季的游客。

太浩湖是著名的划者和滑雪者的圣地。它寒冷的高水以清澈见长。尽管寒冷的季为周围的滑场提供了充足的积雪,但湖面从未结冰。塔霍湖是北美最大的阿尔卑斯湖,其湖水如此之深,在容量上甚至可以与五大湖匹敌。

时代的冰川,大自然的大师级雕塑家,在亿万年前就雕刻出了翡翠湾,出于某种原因,留下了小小的范内特岛。在范内特最终坚持之前,在过去的一个世纪里,人们已经知道了半打名字。登上海拔150英尺的山顶,你将看到一座名为“茶馆”的古老石头建筑的废墟,这座建筑是20世纪20年代由该岛的前主人建造的,附近还有一处位于翡翠湾的庄园,名为Vikingsholm(该庄园现在归国家所有,是翡翠湾国家公园的一个热门景点)。茶馆正是用来举办这种亲密的茶话会的,周围的环境几乎不可能在任何其他家庭中复制。虽然岛上不再供应茶,但阿尔卑斯山的景色仍然可以欣赏。

马罗沃泻湖中的珊瑚礁,所罗门群岛 Coral reef in Marovo Lagoon in the Solomon Islands (© WaterFrame/Alamy)

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马罗沃泻中的珊瑚礁所罗门群岛 Coral reef in Marovo Lagoon in the Solomon Islands (© WaterFrame/Alamy)

水下的奇妙景观 The beauty that lies below

World Reef Day

The Marovo Lagoon in the Solomon Islands is the largest saltwater lagoon in the world. Protected by a double barrier reef, it's home to unique marine life and coral, making it a bucket-list destination for divers. The beauty and diversity of life contained within its pristine, 270 square miles are the perfect inspiration for World Reef Day, observed every year on June 1 to bring awareness to this vital but largely unseen part of our natural world. Reef Day also kicks off World Oceans Month, a time to celebrate and learn more about these vital ecosystems.

Although coral reefs occupy less than 0.1% of the planet's oceans, they support up to 25% of the world's marine species. They have rightfully earned their nickname, 'Rainforests of the Sea.' Coral is not a plant, but part animal and part mineral, a marine invertebrate that secretes calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. They grow in colonies, usually in warm, shallow waters, and form vast colonies that we see as reefs, providing the basic platform for marine life to flourish around them. They even provide benefits to land, protecting shorelines from the forces of the ocean.

Unfortunately, coral reefs are under immense environmental pressure due to pollution, overfishing, and particularly from changing ocean temperatures. A warming ocean and acidification due to increased carbon dioxide have resulted in coral bleaching—when under stress, corals lose their color. The yellow whip and red gorgonian you see here are what healthy corals look like, but vibrant, hearty corals are swiftly becoming the exception rather than the rule. Recently, even the previously robust and thriving Marovo Lagoon began showing signs of bleaching, a sobering reminder that the beauty we see here is fragile and becoming more precious.

世界珊瑚礁日

所罗门群岛的马罗沃泻湖是世界上最大的咸水泻湖。受双堡礁保护,这里是独特海洋生物和珊瑚的家园,是潜水员的首选目的地。每年6月1日是世界珊瑚礁日,每年的6月1日是世界珊瑚礁日的纪念日,旨在让人们认识到这一自然世界中重要但基本上看不见的部分,其270平方英里的原貌中蕴含着美丽而多样的生命。珊瑚礁日也是世界海洋月的开始,是庆祝和了解这些重要生态系统的时候。

虽然珊瑚礁只占地球海洋的不到0.1%,但它们支持着世界上多达25%的海洋物种。他们理所当然地赢得了“海洋雨林”的绰号珊瑚不是植物,但部分是动物,部分是矿物,是一种海洋无脊椎动物,分泌碳酸钙形成坚硬的骨架。它们通常生长在温暖的浅水区,形成巨大的珊瑚礁群,为海洋生物在其周围繁衍生息提供了基本平台。它们甚至为陆地带来好处,保护海岸线不受海洋力量的影响。

不幸的是,由于污染、过度捕捞,尤其是海洋温度的变化,珊瑚礁面临着巨大的环境压力。海洋变暖和二氧化碳增加导致的酸化导致珊瑚白化。在压力下,珊瑚会失去颜色。你在这里看到的黄色鞭子和红色gorgonian珊瑚是健康的珊瑚的样子,但充满活力、饱满的珊瑚很快就会成为例外,而不是常规。最近,就连之前繁荣的马洛沃环礁湖也开始出现白化迹象,这提醒我们,我们在这里看到的美丽是脆弱的,越来越珍贵。