标签 城堡 下的文章

塔菲拉勒地区的一座古老古堡, 摩洛哥 An old kasbah in the Tafilalet region, Morocco (© José Antonio Moreno/agefotostock)

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塔菲拉勒地区的一座古老古堡, 摩洛哥 An old kasbah in the Tafilalet region, Morocco (© José Antonio Moreno/agefotostock)

沙海中的绿洲 An oasis in a sea of sand

Tafilalet oasis in Morocco

Tafilalet means 'jug' in the language of the ancient Amazigh people (aka Berbers), and that's surely an appropriate moniker for the largest oasis in Morocco. After the first permanent settlement of the region, Sijilmassa, was founded in 757 CE, Tafilalet became a stopping point for caravans traveling from the Niger River to Tangier on the northern tip of Morocco and the gateway to Europe.

The oasis here at Tafilalet thrives thanks to underground springs and wells, which are supplied by sandstone aquifers that can be hundreds of miles away. Surrounded by the dry sands of the Sahara, the lifegiving waters here at Tafilalet support miles of date palm groves, a major industry in North Africa. Over the centuries, several villages have sprung up in this oasis, some of them with fortified kasbahs like this one, to withstand attacks from invaders.




下莱茵省的胡内城堡,法国阿尔萨斯大区 Château de Hunebourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France (© Leonid Andronov/Alamy)

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下莱茵省的胡内城堡法国阿尔萨斯大区 Château de Hunebourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France (© Leonid Andronov/Alamy)

12世纪的历史遗迹 The castle of a thousand and one lives

Château de Hunebourg

Today, we take a breath of fresh air, nature and history with this view of the Alsatian castle of Hunenbourg, located west of Neuwiller-lès-Saverne, in the Bas-Rhin, in Alsace. The castle of Hunebourg, listed as a Historic Monument since June 2007, is installed on a sandstone rock 425 meters above sea level and accessible by the Zinsel valley.

Formerly owned by the Counts of Hunebourg, the castle was built in the 12th century. Years after years, it passed from hand to hand. In the second half of the 20th century, the castle became what it still is today, a hotel.

The site welcomes its visitors in an exceptional natural setting where you can still admire the remains of the original building such as the floors and furniture, the cave of Love, which was used as a place for romantic dates, reconstructed by Spieser, or the markers of divided areas.





梅萨维德国家公园的方形塔楼,美国科罗拉多州 Square Tower House in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado (© lightphoto/Getty Images)

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梅萨维德国家公园的方形塔楼,美国科罗拉多州 Square Tower House in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado (© lightphoto/Getty Images)

普韦布洛城堡 Castle of the Ancestral Puebloans

Square Tower House in Mesa Verde National Park

We continue our celebration of National Park Week (through April 24)–and the UNESCO International Day for Monuments and Sites–with a visit to the impressive Square Tower House in Mesa Verde National Park. Square Tower House is one of many cliff dwellings constructed by the Ancestral Puebloans in what is now the American Southwest. At 27 feet, it's the tallest structure in the park. Square Tower House is also notable for its kiva, a round, sunken room used for ceremonies. Unlike most of the ancient kivas found in the region, the kiva at Square Tower House has an intact original clay roof supported by wooden beams.

Ancestral Puebloans lived in today's Four Corners region, where the borders of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico meet at a single point. It's unclear when exactly this culture emerged, but the current consensus is that the Ancestral Puebloans appeared in this area a little more than 3,000 years ago. They're believed to have built the series of cliff dwellings for defensive reasons as various factions competed for scarce resources when the region suffered from a prolonged drought. It's thought that the changing climate eventually became so severe that it likely drove them from the cliff dwellings sometime around 1300 CE, just a century or so after construction began. Today, many of the cliff dwellings have been restored and visitors can view the homes and kivas of the builders.




孚日山脉上的国王城堡,法国阿尔萨斯 The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg in the Vosges mountains, Alsace, France (© Leonid Andronov/Shutterstock)

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孚日山脉上的国王城堡法国阿尔萨斯 The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg in the Vosges mountains, Alsace, France (© Leonid Andronov/Shutterstock)

Haut-Koenigsbourg Castle

Haut-Koenigsbourg Castle is an old medieval castle left over from the Vosges Mountains in the Alsace region of northeastern France. It has a history of 850 years, and due to its proper preservation, this allows us to see what it looked like back then. Also, you can have an overlook of the city of Alsace from the top of a hill...

The castle was built in the 12th century to monitor the trade routes of silver and wine. It was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War in the 17th century and rebuilt in the early 20th century. Today, it is a popular tourist destination, visited by 500,000 people every year, as a museum displaying medieval weapons and Renaissance frescoes.




蒙特城堡,意大利普利亚大区 Castel del Monte, Apulia, Italy (© Toni Spagone/Alamy)

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蒙特城堡意大利普利亚大区 Castel del Monte, Apulia, Italy (© Toni Spagone/Alamy)

An octagonal architectural treasure

Built in the 1240s by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in southeast Italy, Castel del Monte (Castle of the Mount) features an unusual octagonal design. Eight stone walls stretch between eight octagonal towers and enclose an octagonal courtyard. Each of the two floors also has eight trapezoidal rooms. Acclaimed and protected as a World Heritage Site in 1966, the castle symbolically reflects a harmonious integration of classical Roman, Arabic, and medieval architecture and design—and to some, its octagonal symmetry suggests a connection between heaven and earth.

Its original purpose is unclear. Without a drawbridge, moat, or curtain wall to protect it, it was clearly not a defensive fortress, and its lack of stables call into question its function as a hunting lodge. Over the centuries it has served as a prison and as a refuge from the plague. But whatever the emperor's intention, he left a captivating monument that still enchants today.




埃尔福特附近的瓦克森堡城堡, 德国 Wachsenburg Castle near Erfurt, Germany (© Radius Images/Offset by Shutterstock)

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埃尔福特附近的瓦克森堡城堡, 德国 Wachsenburg Castle near Erfurt, Germany (© Radius Images/Offset by Shutterstock)

A reflection of Europe's past

Today we're in the central German state of Thuringia to visit Wachsenburg Castle. It's the most famous of a trio of medieval hilltop castles collectively referred to as 'Drei Gleichen' (Three of a Kind) because of their close resemblance. Wachsenburg was originally built by the Hersfeld Monastery sometime in the early 10th century as a fortified castle, but it underwent significant changes over the centuries.

As might be expected of a building nearly 1,100 years old, the castle has housed many different occupants in its time, some of them notorious. Through most of its history it was used as a defensive fortress, and by the 13th century the Counts of Mühlburg had added a moat to help fend off invaders from nearby Hungary. Later, in the mid-15th century, an infamous brigand and wayward knight named Apel von Vitzthum conquered Wachsenburg. He used it as a base to carry out raids against merchants in the nearby town of Erfurt before the locals finally banded together to put an end to his pillaging. The Duke of Saxony took control of the fortress in 1710, but by the late 18th century, it was being used as prison. These days, Wachsenburg plays a different role in the local community. Following a number of renovations, including a major one in the 1990s, it's now a tourist destination complete with restaurant, hotel, and museum.


今天我们在德国中部的图林根州参观瓦克森堡城堡。它是三座中世纪山顶城堡中最著名的一座,因为它们非常相似,所以被统称为“Drei Gleichen”(一种三座)。瓦克森堡最初是由赫斯菲尔德修道院建于10世纪初的某个时候,作为一个设防的城堡,但它经历了几个世纪的重大变化。


戈佐岛上的Cittadella城堡,马耳他 Cittadella on the island of Gozo, Malta (© Davide Seddio/Getty Images)

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戈佐上的Cittadella城堡,马耳他 Cittadella on the island of Gozo, Malta (© Davide Seddio/Getty Images)

A celebration of Maltese culture

That mighty fortress at the top of the hill is called the Cittadella—it's a medieval fortified city at the geographical center of the island of Gozo. Gozo is the second-largest island in the Maltese archipelago (after the island of Malta itself), and despite all appearances it's the less densely populated of the two.

On both Gozo and Malta, today marks the start of a two-day celebration of Maltese culture called Mnarja (sometimes spelled Imnarja). The national festival dates from the 16th century and is dedicated to the feast day of Saints Peter and Paul. During Mnarja, centuries-old Maltese customs and traditions are on full display. The streets come alive with traditional folk songs called ghana, as well as dancing, and horse and donkey races, some of which feature jockeys riding behind in chariots. Malta's national dish, a rabbit stew called fenkata, is served at nearly all Mnarja events. During the festival's medieval origins this was the only time of year when ordinary Maltese people were allowed to eat rabbit, which was usually reserved for the knights that then ruled the islands. To wash down the rabbit stew? Maltese wine, of course. Saħħa! ('Cheers!')