标签 希腊 下的文章

圣托里尼岛上的伊亚镇,希腊 The village of Oia on the island of Santorini, Greece (© Zebra-Studio/Shutterstock)

发布于 , 18 次浏览

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圣托里尼岛上的伊亚镇,希腊 The village of Oia on the island of Santorini, Greece (© Zebra-Studio/Shutterstock)

米诺斯人的古老家园 The ancient home of the Minoans

Santorini, Greece

Officially known as Thira, Santorini is perhaps the most famous of all the Greek Islands. Located at the southern end of the Aegean Sea, Santorini is part of the Cyclades group of islands and receives about 2 million visitors a year. That's a lot of adoring attention for a small island (only 28 square miles) of 15,000 residents, and it's no wonder why. The whitewashed, clifftop villages of Santorini, like Oia featured in this image, are postcard perfect. And so are the unlimited panoramic views of the azure Mediterranean Sea.

Its tranquil beauty belies the cataclysmic eruption that formed the island as we know it today. The Minoan eruption, about 3,600 years ago, was one of the world's largest known volcanic eruptions. It destroyed what was a thriving Minoan city and created a giant caldera that sank below the sea, leaving behind the picturesque lagoon seen here. Volcanic activity has continued since then. At the center of the lagoon is the uninhabited volcanic island of Nea Kameni, which emerged from the sea in 19 CE, according to Pliny the Elder. It's had several major eruptions over the past 300 years.

With millennia of experience, people have learned to live with the volcanic activity of these islands. Tourism is now the main activity on Santorini, along with a small winemaking industry. Throw in abundant sunshine, constant sea breezes, and meandering steps through storybook villages and you'll never run out of reasons to visit.

希腊圣托里尼

圣托里尼的官方名称是蒂拉岛,它可能是希腊所有岛屿中最著名的。圣托里尼岛位于爱琴海南端,是基克拉迪群岛的一部分,每年接待约200万游客。这是一个拥有15000名居民的小岛(仅28平方英里)的巨大关注,这也难怪为什么。圣托里尼被粉刷过的悬崖上的村庄,就像这张照片中的Oia一样,都是明信片上的完美之作。蔚蓝的地中海的无限全景也是如此。

它宁静的美丽掩盖了我们今天所知道的形成这个岛屿的灾难性喷发。大约3600年前的米诺斯火山喷发是世界上已知的最大的火喷发之一。它摧毁了一座繁荣的米诺斯城市,形成了一个巨大的火山口,沉入海底,留下了这里风景如画的环礁。从那时起,火山活动一直在继续。根据老普林尼的说法,泻湖的中心是无人居住的火山岛尼娅·卡梅尼,该岛于公元19世纪从海上浮出水面。在过去的300年里,它发生过几次大的喷发。

经过数千年的经验,人们已经学会了适应这些岛屿的火山活动。旅游业现在是圣托里尼岛的主要活动,还有一个小型酿酒业。在充足的阳下,持续的海风中,蜿蜒的步子穿过故事中的村庄,你永远不会失去参观的理由。

雅典卫城的帕特农神庙,希腊 The Parthenon temple in the Acropolis of Athens, Greece (© Lucky-photographer/Shutterstock)

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雅典卫城的帕特农神庙希腊 The Parthenon temple in the Acropolis of Athens, Greece (© Lucky-photographer/Shutterstock)

On the rebirth of the Olympic Games

Today marks the 125th anniversary of the first modern Olympic games, held in Athens in 1896—1,500 years after they were banned by the Roman Emperor. (The original games were held at least as far back as 776 BCE and probably earlier.) The 1896 games were held in the Panathenaic Stadium, in the shadow of the Acropolis of Athens, shown here. Those newly revived games of 1896 included athletes from 14 countries, with the largest delegations from Greece, Germany, France, and Great Britain. The 43 events included a marathon, tennis, cycling, fencing, shooting, Greco-Roman wrestling, and swimming. And while some things haven't changed over the years, some were pretty different back then. Swimmers were taken out to sea by boat for the longer races and had to swim back to shore. Winners were given a silver medal (copper for second place), as well as an olive branch and a diploma.

This is a unique time for the Olympics. We can look forward to the postponed 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo (now scheduled to start in July 2021) as well as the Winter Games in Beijing in 2022. The Beijing games will feature a mascot panda named Bing Dwen Dwen. 'Bing' means ice and symbolizes purity and strength, and 'Dwen Dwen' represents children. After the postponement of 2020, we can't wait to hear, 'Let the games begin!'

奥运会的重生

今天是第一届现代奥林匹克运动会125周年纪念日,1896-1500年雅典奥运会被罗马皇帝禁止举办。(最初的奥运会至少在公元前776年举行,可能更早)1896年的奥运会在雅典卫城阴影下的泛雅典体育场举行,如图所示。新恢复的1896年奥运会包括14个国家的运动员,其中最大的代表团来自希腊、德国法国英国。这43个项目包括马拉松、网球、自行车、击剑、射击、古典式摔跤和游泳。虽然有些事情多年来没有改变,但有些事情在那时候却大不相同。游泳者被划带出海参加更长时间的比赛,不得不游回岸边。获胜者获得银牌(铜牌获得第二名),以及橄榄枝和文凭。

这是一个独特的时间为奥运会。我们可以期待推迟的2020年东京奥运会和残奥会(现在计划于2021年7月开始)以及2022年北京奥会。北京奥运会将有一只名叫宾·德温的吉祥物熊猫“冰”的意思是冰,象征纯洁和力量,“德文德文”代表儿童。在2020年推迟之后,我们迫不及待地想听到,‘让奥运会开始吧!’

圣托里尼岛鸟瞰图,希腊 Aerial view of Santorini island, Greece (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset)

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圣托里尼岛鸟瞰图,希腊 Aerial view of Santorini island, Greece (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset)

Santorini through the clouds

With its romantic sunsets, dazzling ocean views, and whitewashed buildings clinging to rocky clifftops, the Greek island of Santorini (aka Thera) is the very picture of an idyll in the Aegean. But this tranquil scene belies the island's explosive geologic history, for this is the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history. The Minoan eruption, about 3,600 years ago, caused the center of the Thera Volcano to collapse into the ocean, leaving Santorini a jagged, crescent-shaped moon atop the sea.

The impact of the eruption was more than just geologic—when the volcano blew its top, Santorini was home to a thriving outpost of the Minoan civilization. A farming and fishing community had been established at Akrotiri on the island around 7,000 years ago, and by the time of the eruption had developed into a prosperous city built largely on trade with other cultures of the Aegean. Akrotiri had paved streets, delicate pottery, a drainage system, and multistory buildings decorated in elaborate frescoes. Akrotiri's fortunes ended abruptly, however, with the Minoan eruption, which completely buried the city in pumice and ash. Extensive archaeological excavations began in 1967, revealing artifacts that were remarkably well preserved by the volcanic material; particularly notable were the elegant, colorful frescoes. It seems Santorini has always been a site for the beautiful things in life.