标签 土耳其 下的文章

从观景台俯瞰格雷梅,格雷梅国家公园,土耳其卡帕多西亚省 View of Göreme from an observation deck, Göreme National Park, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

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从观景台俯瞰格雷梅,格雷梅国家公园土耳其卡帕多西亚省 View of Göreme from an observation deck, Göreme National Park, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

那些生动的岩石 Living rock

Göreme, in Cappadocia, Turkey

Both natural wonders and historic landmarks, the 'fairy chimneys' of Göreme may suggest the fantastical dwellings of an alien species or an illustration from a Dr. Seuss book. These and similar rock formations are known by many names—hoodoos, tent rocks, earth pyramids, as well as fairy chimneys—and are typically found in dry, hot areas. Here in Cappadocia, in south-central Turkey, they were formed when a thick layer of volcanic ash solidified over millions of years into soft, porous rock called tuff that was overlaid by hard basalt. Cracks in the basalt allowed wind and rain to gradually wash away the softer bottom layer, leaving the hard basalt to cap tall columns of the tuff. The result is these unusual, often beautiful—and perhaps puzzling—formations that spread across the Anatolian plain.

This part of modern day Turkey has been inhabited since at least the Hittite era, between 1800 and 1200 BCE, and possibly for much longer. Innumerable ancient empires fought over the region, with Hittites, Assyrians, Neo-Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans each laying claim to Anatolia at times. To escape this dangerous world, the locals learned to burrow into the hillsides for protection. Today, a visitor can see the vast, complex, interconnected caves in which societies thrived and sheltered for millennia. Göreme National Park was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 and is now a popular tourist destination.




土耳其棉花堡的石灰华梯田 Travertine terraces of Pamukkale, Turkey (© bybostanci/Getty Images)

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土耳其堡的石灰华梯田 Travertine terraces of Pamukkale, Turkey (© bybostanci/Getty Images)

天堂般的温 Heavenly hot springs

Pamukkale, Turkey

The stunning travertine terraces and hot pools of Pamukkale, Turkey, have dazzled visitors since at least the end of the 2nd century BCE and the founding of the Greco-Roman thermal spa of Hierapolis. Since then, people have enjoyed a relaxing soak in the 97-degree Fahrenheit water, claiming curative powers for many ailments.

It makes sense that Pamukkale is also known as the 'Cotton Palace,' in a nod to the fluffy-looking white formations that cover the hillside. That 'cotton' is travertine, a soft limestone that is formed over centuries as calcite-laden water drops from springs on a cliff high above. Here it's a stunning white, but travertine can be found in many different colors, ranging from gray to gold.

The terraces and the ancient ruins of Hierapolis are so unique that they were named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. New restrictions to protect the pools include a cap on the number of bathers, so you may not be allowed to take a dip. But there's plenty to marvel at here. Walk around the ruins of the theater and necropolis, the ancient temples, and bath houses in Hierapolis. You'll be in good company: The hot springs and Hierapolis draw more than 2 million visitors a year, making them one of Turkey's most visited attractions.





悬崖上雕刻的古老岩石墓葬,土耳其达利安附近 Ancient rock tombs carved into the cliff near Dalyan, Turkey (© Reinhard Schmid/eStock Photo)

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悬崖雕刻的古老岩石墓葬,土耳其达利安附近 Ancient rock tombs carved into the cliff near Dalyan, Turkey (© Reinhard Schmid/eStock Photo)

Turkey, Ancient rock tombs

Among the remains of the ancient Anatolian port city of Kaunos are these carvings in the sheer rock walls above the Dalyan Çayı River. Overlooking the modern-day city of Dalyan, Turkey, what appear to be ornate cliff dwellings are really the weathered facades of tombs for the elite of a once-forgotten society.

With a history of human habitation going back almost 3,000 years, Kaunos has over the centuries found itself under Persian, Greek, Persian (again), Macedonian, Roman, Lycian, Roman (again), and finally Turkish rule—just to give you the highlights. But it was the sands of time that conquered the city once and for all: Silty deposits from the river eventually mucked up the port so badly it became useless. Gradually abandoned, Kaunos' location was lost to memory, and its rock-hewn Lycian tombs, monuments, and 5,000-seater amphitheater were relegated to rumor until a British surveyor rediscovered the site in 1842.




内姆鲁特山上巨大的石灰岩雕像,土耳其阿德亚曼 Colossal limestone statues on Mount Nemrut, Adıyaman, Turkey (© Peerakit JIrachetthakun/Getty Images)

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内姆鲁特上巨大的石灰岩雕像土耳其阿德亚曼 Colossal limestone statues on Mount Nemrut, Adıyaman, Turkey (© Peerakit JIrachetthakun/Getty Images)

The mountaintop of toppled gods

The ruins on Mount Nemrut depict a gaggle of gods from both Greek and Persian traditions, plus a few deities that King Antiochus I made up himself. The range of spiritual faiths represented in the statues found near the 7,000-foot summit reflects southeastern Turkey's long history as a crossroads of cultures. Today, the derelict statues are protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In 70 BCE, Antiochus took power here in Commagene, one of several small onetime states formed from the shambles of the Seleucid Empire. Looking to unify his populace, he synthesized a mythology that hailed Greek and Persian figures, from Ares to Zarathustra—plus the king himself and his family. Antiochus' claim to godhood wasn't eternal, as he was deposed in 31 BCE, but sometime before that he cemented his customized state religion in history by having its partial pantheon—including, of course, himself—carved into stone statues on the peak overlooking his kingdom.




土耳其棉花堡附近希腊古城希拉波利斯的剧院鸟瞰图 Aerial view of the theater at the ancient city of Hierapolis, adjacent to Pamukkale, Turkey (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

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土耳其堡附近希腊古城希拉波利斯的剧院鸟瞰图 Aerial view of the theater at the ancient city of Hierapolis, adjacent to Pamukkale, Turkey (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

Take in a show on your Roman holiday

In the hills around Pamukkale, Turkey, you'll find the ancient ruins of Hierapolis, which thrived here as holy and healing destination through Greek, Roman, and Ottoman times. The city was founded as a thermal spa in 190 BCE by Eumenes II, the king of Pergamon and was likely named after the wife of the legendary founder of the Pergamene dynasty, Hiero.

The amphitheater so prominent in this aerial view was built in the second century CE under Roman Emperor Hadrian. Renovated several times over the next 160 years—once to accommodate aquatic shows--the theater would have seated about 15,000 people. An earthquake in 1354 finally toppled the ancient city and it was abandoned until it was excavated by German archeologist Carl Humann in the 19th century. Today, the complex retains some of the best-preserved decorative features of any ancient Roman theater, with friezes of Roman Emperor Septimus Severus and his family, as well as the Greek gods Dionysus, Artemis, and Apollo.

“精灵烟囟”和窑洞,土耳其卡帕多西亚 Fairy chimneys and cave dwellings in Uçhisar, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Ivan Kmit/Alamy)

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“精灵烟囟”和窑土耳其卡帕多西亚 Fairy chimneys and cave dwellings in Uçhisar, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Ivan Kmit/Alamy)

And to think that I saw it in Cappadocia

The fantastical 'fairy chimneys' found in central Turkey's historic Cappadocia region were formed by a collision of the natural and the man-made—and they form a scene that seems straight out of a Dr. Seuss illustration. The landforms were created when volcanoes deposited mounds of soft, porous rock called tuff, which was later covered with hard basalt. In the 10th century (though possibly starting up to 5,000 years ago) humans excavated the tuff to create caves and catacombs that could fit thousands of dwellers. Through not only the astonishing ruins but the many 'cave hotels' hewn into rock in the city of Göreme, the memory of those ingenious city planners lives on.

But in fact, it's the memory of Dr. Seuss that brings us here today. On March 2, 1904, Seuss—real name Theodor Geisel—was born in Springfield, Massachusetts. The children's book creator—known for his quirky, bombastic poetry and fantastical pen-and-ink landscapes—passed away in 1991, but his birthday is still observed as a yearly celebration of literacy for kids and 'obsolete children' (as Seuss classified adults) everywhere.