标签 土耳其 下的文章

从观景台俯瞰格雷梅,格雷梅国家公园,土耳其卡帕多西亚省 View of Göreme from an observation deck, Göreme National Park, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

发布于 , 15 次浏览

GoremeNationalPark_ZH-CN1861727385_1920x1080.jpg

从观景台俯瞰格雷梅,格雷梅国家公园土耳其卡帕多西亚省 View of Göreme from an observation deck, Göreme National Park, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

那些生动的岩石 Living rock

Göreme, in Cappadocia, Turkey

Both natural wonders and historic landmarks, the 'fairy chimneys' of Göreme may suggest the fantastical dwellings of an alien species or an illustration from a Dr. Seuss book. These and similar rock formations are known by many names—hoodoos, tent rocks, earth pyramids, as well as fairy chimneys—and are typically found in dry, hot areas. Here in Cappadocia, in south-central Turkey, they were formed when a thick layer of volcanic ash solidified over millions of years into soft, porous rock called tuff that was overlaid by hard basalt. Cracks in the basalt allowed wind and rain to gradually wash away the softer bottom layer, leaving the hard basalt to cap tall columns of the tuff. The result is these unusual, often beautiful—and perhaps puzzling—formations that spread across the Anatolian plain.

This part of modern day Turkey has been inhabited since at least the Hittite era, between 1800 and 1200 BCE, and possibly for much longer. Innumerable ancient empires fought over the region, with Hittites, Assyrians, Neo-Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans each laying claim to Anatolia at times. To escape this dangerous world, the locals learned to burrow into the hillsides for protection. Today, a visitor can see the vast, complex, interconnected caves in which societies thrived and sheltered for millennia. Göreme National Park was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 and is now a popular tourist destination.

格勒梅,土耳其卡帕多西亚

无论是自然奇观还是历史地标,戈雷米的“童话烟囱”都可能暗示着一个外来物种的奇幻住所,或是苏斯博士中的插图。这些和类似的岩层以许多名字而闻名于世,如丛、帐篷岩、地球金字塔,以及仙女烟囱,通常出现在干燥炎热的地区。在土耳其中南部的卡帕多西亚,一层厚厚的火山灰经过数百万年的固化,形成了一种叫做凝灰岩的软多孔岩石,上面覆盖着坚硬的玄武岩。玄武岩中的裂缝使风和雨逐渐冲走较软的底层,留下坚硬的玄武岩覆盖凝灰岩的高柱。结果就是这些不寻常的、通常美丽的、也许令人费解的地层遍布安纳托利亚平原。

现代土耳其的这一部分至少从赫梯时代(公元前1800年至1200年)起就有人居住,而且可能会更久。无数的古代帝国为该地区而战,赫梯人、亚述人、新亚述人、波斯人、希腊人和罗马人有时都声称对安纳托利亚拥有主权。为了逃离这个危险的世界,当地人学会了在坡上挖保护自己。今天,游客可以看到巨大、复杂、相互连接的洞穴,数千年来,社会在这些洞穴中繁衍生息并得到庇护。戈雷米国家公园于1985年被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产名录,现在是一个受欢迎的旅游目的地。

土耳其棉花堡的石灰华梯田 Travertine terraces of Pamukkale, Turkey (© bybostanci/Getty Images)

发布于 , 22 次浏览

TravertineTurkey_ZH-CN6430409651_1920x1080.jpg

土耳其堡的石灰华梯田 Travertine terraces of Pamukkale, Turkey (© bybostanci/Getty Images)

天堂般的温 Heavenly hot springs

Pamukkale, Turkey

The stunning travertine terraces and hot pools of Pamukkale, Turkey, have dazzled visitors since at least the end of the 2nd century BCE and the founding of the Greco-Roman thermal spa of Hierapolis. Since then, people have enjoyed a relaxing soak in the 97-degree Fahrenheit water, claiming curative powers for many ailments.

It makes sense that Pamukkale is also known as the 'Cotton Palace,' in a nod to the fluffy-looking white formations that cover the hillside. That 'cotton' is travertine, a soft limestone that is formed over centuries as calcite-laden water drops from springs on a cliff high above. Here it's a stunning white, but travertine can be found in many different colors, ranging from gray to gold.

The terraces and the ancient ruins of Hierapolis are so unique that they were named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. New restrictions to protect the pools include a cap on the number of bathers, so you may not be allowed to take a dip. But there's plenty to marvel at here. Walk around the ruins of the theater and necropolis, the ancient temples, and bath houses in Hierapolis. You'll be in good company: The hot springs and Hierapolis draw more than 2 million visitors a year, making them one of Turkey's most visited attractions.

帕穆卡莱,土耳其

至少从公元前2世纪末和希拉波里斯希腊罗马温泉浴场的建立起,土耳其帕穆卡勒令人惊叹的石灰华露台和热水池就让游客们眼花缭乱。从那时起,人们在华氏97度的水中享受着放松的浸泡,声称对许多疾病都有疗效。

Pamukkale也被称为“棉花宫”,这是有道理的,因为它与覆盖在坡上的蓬松的白色地层相呼应。这种“棉花”是石灰华,一种柔软的石灰岩,几个世纪以来,富含方解石的水从悬崖上方的泉水中滴落而成。这是一种令人惊叹的白色,但石灰华有许多不同的颜色,从灰色到金色不等。

Hierapolis的梯田和古代遗址非常独特,因此被联合国教科文组织命名为世界遗产。保护游泳池的新限制包括对游泳人数的限制,因此你可能不被允许游泳。但这里有很多值得惊叹的地方。在希拉波里斯的剧院和墓地遗址、古庙和澡堂周围走走。你会有很好的同伴:温泉和希拉波利斯每年吸引200多万游客,使其成为土耳其游客最多的景点之一。

悬崖上雕刻的古老岩石墓葬,土耳其达利安附近 Ancient rock tombs carved into the cliff near Dalyan, Turkey (© Reinhard Schmid/eStock Photo)

发布于 , 99 次浏览

DalyanTombs_ZH-CN1519154607_1920x1080.jpg

悬崖雕刻的古老岩石墓葬,土耳其达利安附近 Ancient rock tombs carved into the cliff near Dalyan, Turkey (© Reinhard Schmid/eStock Photo)

Turkey, Ancient rock tombs

Among the remains of the ancient Anatolian port city of Kaunos are these carvings in the sheer rock walls above the Dalyan Çayı River. Overlooking the modern-day city of Dalyan, Turkey, what appear to be ornate cliff dwellings are really the weathered facades of tombs for the elite of a once-forgotten society.

With a history of human habitation going back almost 3,000 years, Kaunos has over the centuries found itself under Persian, Greek, Persian (again), Macedonian, Roman, Lycian, Roman (again), and finally Turkish rule—just to give you the highlights. But it was the sands of time that conquered the city once and for all: Silty deposits from the river eventually mucked up the port so badly it became useless. Gradually abandoned, Kaunos' location was lost to memory, and its rock-hewn Lycian tombs, monuments, and 5,000-seater amphitheater were relegated to rumor until a British surveyor rediscovered the site in 1842.

土耳其,古岩墓

在古老的安纳托利亚港口城市卡乌诺斯的遗迹中,有这些雕刻在达利安ı上方陡峭的岩壁上。俯瞰土耳其现代城市Dalyan,看似华丽的悬崖住宅实际上是一个曾经被遗忘的社会精英们的坟墓风化的正面。

Kaunos的人类居住历史可以追溯到近3000年前,几个世纪以来,它一直处于波斯人、希腊人、波斯人(再次)、马其顿人、罗马人、利西亚人、罗马人(再次)以及最后的土耳其统治之下,这只是为了给你一个亮点。但是,正是时间的沙粒一劳永逸地征服了这座城市:河流中的淤泥沉积物最终把口弄得一团糟,变得毫无用处。卡诺斯的位置逐渐被遗弃,人们对其失去了记忆,其岩石凿成的利西亚陵墓、纪念碑和5000座的圆形剧场也被流言传开,直到1842年一名英国勘测员重新发现该地点。

内姆鲁特山上巨大的石灰岩雕像,土耳其阿德亚曼 Colossal limestone statues on Mount Nemrut, Adıyaman, Turkey (© Peerakit JIrachetthakun/Getty Images)

发布于 , 340 次浏览

MountNemrut_ZH-CN4681788604_1920x1080.jpg

内姆鲁特上巨大的石灰岩雕像土耳其阿德亚曼 Colossal limestone statues on Mount Nemrut, Adıyaman, Turkey (© Peerakit JIrachetthakun/Getty Images)

The mountaintop of toppled gods

The ruins on Mount Nemrut depict a gaggle of gods from both Greek and Persian traditions, plus a few deities that King Antiochus I made up himself. The range of spiritual faiths represented in the statues found near the 7,000-foot summit reflects southeastern Turkey's long history as a crossroads of cultures. Today, the derelict statues are protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In 70 BCE, Antiochus took power here in Commagene, one of several small onetime states formed from the shambles of the Seleucid Empire. Looking to unify his populace, he synthesized a mythology that hailed Greek and Persian figures, from Ares to Zarathustra—plus the king himself and his family. Antiochus' claim to godhood wasn't eternal, as he was deposed in 31 BCE, but sometime before that he cemented his customized state religion in history by having its partial pantheon—including, of course, himself—carved into stone statues on the peak overlooking his kingdom.

被推翻的神的山顶

涅姆鲁特山上的废墟描绘了希腊和波斯传统的众神,加上安提约克一世国王自己创造的一些神。在7000英尺高的山顶附近发现的雕像所代表的各种精神信仰反映了土耳其东南部作为文化交汇点的悠久历史。今天,这些被遗弃的雕像被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产。

公元前70年,安提约克在科马根尼掌权,科马根尼是塞琉西帝国废墟中形成的几个小国家之一。为了统一他的人民,他合成了一个神话,颂扬希腊和波斯的人物,从阿瑞斯到查拉图斯特拉,再加上国王本人和他的家人。安提约克对神性的要求并不是永恒的,因为他在公元前31年被废黜,但在此之前的某个时候,他通过拥有部分万神殿(当然包括他自己)在俯瞰王国的山顶上雕刻成石像,巩固了他定制的国教在历史上的地位。

土耳其棉花堡附近希腊古城希拉波利斯的剧院鸟瞰图 Aerial view of the theater at the ancient city of Hierapolis, adjacent to Pamukkale, Turkey (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

发布于 , 376 次浏览

HierapolisTurkey_ZH-CN6067183569_1920x1080.jpg

土耳其堡附近希腊古城希拉波利斯的剧院鸟瞰图 Aerial view of the theater at the ancient city of Hierapolis, adjacent to Pamukkale, Turkey (© Amazing Aerial Agency/Offset by Shutterstock)

Take in a show on your Roman holiday

In the hills around Pamukkale, Turkey, you'll find the ancient ruins of Hierapolis, which thrived here as holy and healing destination through Greek, Roman, and Ottoman times. The city was founded as a thermal spa in 190 BCE by Eumenes II, the king of Pergamon and was likely named after the wife of the legendary founder of the Pergamene dynasty, Hiero.

The amphitheater so prominent in this aerial view was built in the second century CE under Roman Emperor Hadrian. Renovated several times over the next 160 years—once to accommodate aquatic shows--the theater would have seated about 15,000 people. An earthquake in 1354 finally toppled the ancient city and it was abandoned until it was excavated by German archeologist Carl Humann in the 19th century. Today, the complex retains some of the best-preserved decorative features of any ancient Roman theater, with friezes of Roman Emperor Septimus Severus and his family, as well as the Greek gods Dionysus, Artemis, and Apollo.

“精灵烟囟”和窑洞,土耳其卡帕多西亚 Fairy chimneys and cave dwellings in Uçhisar, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Ivan Kmit/Alamy)

发布于 , 888 次浏览

SeussianLandscape_ZH-CN0785428057_1920x1080.jpg

“精灵烟囟”和窑土耳其卡帕多西亚 Fairy chimneys and cave dwellings in Uçhisar, Cappadocia, Turkey (© Ivan Kmit/Alamy)

And to think that I saw it in Cappadocia

The fantastical 'fairy chimneys' found in central Turkey's historic Cappadocia region were formed by a collision of the natural and the man-made—and they form a scene that seems straight out of a Dr. Seuss illustration. The landforms were created when volcanoes deposited mounds of soft, porous rock called tuff, which was later covered with hard basalt. In the 10th century (though possibly starting up to 5,000 years ago) humans excavated the tuff to create caves and catacombs that could fit thousands of dwellers. Through not only the astonishing ruins but the many 'cave hotels' hewn into rock in the city of Göreme, the memory of those ingenious city planners lives on.

But in fact, it's the memory of Dr. Seuss that brings us here today. On March 2, 1904, Seuss—real name Theodor Geisel—was born in Springfield, Massachusetts. The children's book creator—known for his quirky, bombastic poetry and fantastical pen-and-ink landscapes—passed away in 1991, but his birthday is still observed as a yearly celebration of literacy for kids and 'obsolete children' (as Seuss classified adults) everywhere.