标签 智利 下的文章

拉西拉ESO天文台上的天文望远镜设备,智利 Swedish antenna at La Silla ESO Observatory, Chile (© Alberto Ghizzi Panizza/Getty Images)

发布于 , 14 次浏览

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拉西拉ESO天文台上的天文望远镜设备,智利 Swedish antenna at La Silla ESO Observatory, Chile (© Alberto Ghizzi Panizza/Getty Images)

仰望夜空 Eyes on the skies

Astronomy Day

In one of the darkest places on Earth there's a cluster of telescopes that examine the heavens each night, sending detailed information about the celestial bodies they observe to astronomers across the planet. Far from any population centers or light pollution, the Atacama Desert is the world's driest nonpolar desert. It's the perfect place for La Silla Observatory, one of the largest observatories in the Southern Hemisphere, and the first to be used by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), a research organization made up of astronomers from 16 European nations. The first ESO telescope at the La Silla site in Chile began operating in 1966.

And what better place to spend World Astronomy Day? Started in 1973 by Doug Berger, the president of the Astronomical Association of Northern California, Berger's initial intent was to set up various telescopes in busy urban locations so that passersby could enjoy views of the heavens. Since then, the event has expanded and is now sponsored by several organizations associated with astronomy. The springtime Astronomy Day is mirrored by another in the fall between mid-September and mid-October.

天文日

地球上最黑暗的地方之一,每天晚上都有一组望远镜检查天空,向地球各地的天文学家发送有关他们观察到的天体的详细信息。阿塔卡马沙漠远离任何人口中心或污染,是世界上最干燥的非极性沙漠。这是南半球最大的天文台之一拉西拉天文台的完美地点,也是欧洲南方天文台(ESO)首次使用的天文台,该研究机构由来自16个欧洲国家的天文学家组成。智利拉希拉基地的第一台ESO望远镜于1966年开始运行。

还有什么地方能更好地度过世界天文日呢?1973年,北加州天文协会主席道格·伯杰(Doug Berger)创立了该望远镜,伯杰最初的意图是在繁忙的城市地点安装各种望远镜,以便路人可以欣赏天空。从那时起,这项活动已经扩大,现在由几个与天文学有关的组织赞助。9月中旬至10月中旬之间的季,春季天文学日与另一个天文学日相映成趣。

帕瑞纳天文台的望远镜和星迹,智利阿塔卡马沙漠 Telescopes and star trails at Paranal Observatory, Atacama Desert, Chile (© Matteo Omied/Alamy)

发布于 , 199 次浏览

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帕瑞纳天文台的望远镜和星迹,智利阿塔卡马沙漠 Telescopes and star trails at Paranal Observatory, Atacama Desert, Chile (© Matteo Omied/Alamy)

Happy Astronomy Day!

No, that's not a downpour of lightsabers—but it's no typical night sky either. Stargazing here at Paranal Observatory, on a mountaintop in Chile's desolate Atacama Desert, you'll get one of the clearest possible naked-eye views of the southern skies. This 'lightsaber' effect comes from the photo's long exposure: What we're seeing is these stars' paths as they track across the night sky due to our planet's rotation. The dazzling colors indicate temperature, from chilly red (5,000-ish degrees Fahrenheit) to balmy blue (temps in the tens of thousands).

What about those structures beneath the starry sky? They're three of the eight telescopes making up the Very Large Telescope, an aptly named project of the European Southern Observatory. Together the telescopes compose photographs of astronomically fine focus: If you were to drive a car on the surface of the moon (which we don't advise trying), the VLT could snap a crystal-clear shot of your headlights.

天文学节快乐!

不,那不是一场剑雨,但也不是典型的夜空。在智利荒凉的阿塔卡马沙漠的山顶上,你可以用肉眼看到最清晰的南方天空。这种“光剑”效应来自于照片的长时间曝光:我们看到的是由于我们星球的自转,这些恒星在夜空中的轨迹。耀眼的颜色表示温度,从冷红色(5000华氏度)到温和的蓝色(数万华氏度)。

星空下的那些建筑呢?它们是组成超大型望远镜的八个望远镜中的三个,这是欧洲南方天文台的一个恰当命名的项目。这些望远镜一起组成了天文上精细聚焦的照片:如果你在月球表面驾驶一辆汽车(我们不建议你尝试),VLT可以拍下你的头灯的清晰照片。

亚伊马火山与前景中的智利南洋杉,智利孔吉利奥国家公园 Volcano Llaima with Araucaria trees in the foreground, Conguillío National Park, Chile (© Fotografías Jorge León Cabello/Getty Images)

发布于 , 295 次浏览

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亚伊马火山与前景中的智利南洋杉,智利孔吉利奥国家公园 Volcano Llaima with Araucaria trees in the foreground, Conguillío National Park, Chile (© Fotografías Jorge León Cabello/Getty Images)

Fall for Chile

Autumn in Chile varies widely as one travels from the Atacama Desert in the north more than 2,600 miles south to the tip of Tierra del Fuego. Around halfway between these two extremes you can find Conguillío National Park and the volcano Llaima at Chile's center. In March, at the start of the Southern Hemisphere's autumn, the leaves of the deciduous forest begin to turn color and fall, and the native Chilean pine trees (Araucarias) stand out even more strikingly.

Because of their distinctive appearance and the fact that they thrive in a wide range of climates, the trees became a favorite of botanists in the 19th century, who transported and cultivated them in many temperate climates around the world. The 'monkey puzzle' trees got their common English name in the 1850s when English barrister Charles Austin observed that 'It would be a puzzle for a monkey to climb that.' Even more amazing is that these trees can live over a thousand years and are themselves living fossils, descended from a lineage stretching back 260 million years to the time of the dinosaurs.

爱上智利

智利的天变化很大,人们从北部的阿塔卡马沙漠向南行驶2600多英里,到达火地的顶端。在这两个极端的中间,你可以看到智利国家公园和智利中心的拉伊马火。今年3月,南半球秋季伊始,落叶林的叶开始变色、飘落,智利本土的松树(Araucarias)更加引人注目。

由于其独特的外观和在各种气候条件下茁壮成长的事实,这些树在19世纪成为植物学家的最爱,他们在世界各地的许多温带气候条件下运输和栽培它们。19世纪50年代,英国大律师查尔斯·奥斯汀(Charles Austin)指出,猴子爬上那棵树将是一个谜,于是“猴子拼图”树就有了共同的英文名称。更令人惊奇的是,这些树能活上一千多年,而且本身就是活化石,其世系可追溯到公元前2.6亿年恐龙。

Portrait of poet Pablo Neruda projected on building, Santiago, Chile (© Mario Tellez/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

发布于 , 599 次浏览

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Portrait of poet Pablo Neruda projected on building, Santiago, Chile (© Mario Tellez/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

It's World Poetry Day

For World Poetry Day, we're seeing the stylized visage of poet Pablo Neruda projected on a building in his native Chile. World Poetry Day was established by UNESCO to acknowledge 'that individuals, everywhere in the world, share the same questions and feelings.' Neruda, a Nobel laureate generally held up by Chileans as their national poet, made his early mark with famously racy love poetry. But his palette of questions and feelings evolved, expanding into surrealism, epic history, and radical politics. His death in 1973 after a bout with cancer was mourned publicly by Chileans—in defiance of newly installed dictator Augusto Pinochet, whom many Chileans link to Neruda's untimely passing.

For World Poetry Day, UNESCO encourages embracing the tradition of reciting poetry for an audience—so keep your eyes peeled for poetry slams and other gatherings of language lovers sure to take place around the world today. Care to prepare? Brush up on your poetry knowledge with today's quiz.

拉帕努伊国家公园中阿胡汤加里基的摩艾石像,智利复活节岛 Moai statues at Ahu Tongariki in Rapa Nui National Park, Easter Island, Chile (© blickwinkel/Alamy)

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拉帕努伊国家公园中阿胡汤加里基的摩艾石像,智利复活节岛 Moai statues at Ahu Tongariki in Rapa Nui National Park, Easter Island, Chile (© blickwinkel/Alamy)

The 'moai' you know

Roam around the tiny, remote Easter Island and you'll find almost 900 of the stern stone faces called moai. They seem ancient as the pyramids, even a little alien, but they were actually sculpted between 500 and 800 years ago from compacted volcanic ash that's as terrestrial as it comes. You're seeing six of the 15 moai that stand on Ahu Tongariki, the largest ahu (stone platform) on the island. These statues were toppled in the 18th or 19th century along with other moai island-wide for reasons not fully known to scholars, though earthquakes or possible tribal infighting are postulated. The statues were later buried by a tidal wave and lay in ruins until the 1990s when they were excavated and placed back on the ahu.

Though scholars still debate how and why the moai were constructed and moved into place, it's known that they represent the ancestors of the Rapa Nui, an isolated and hardy culture that still celebrates its uniqueness. Visit Easter Island during the first two weeks of February and you'll find yourself in the midst of Tapati Rapa Nui, a festival that revives islander ceremonies of song and dance, as well as sporting events like ocean canoeing, horse racing, and haka pei (high-speed sledding on banana tree trunks).

The Villarrica volcano in Chile on September 2, 2018 (© Cristobal Saavedra Escobar/Reuters)

发布于 , 521 次浏览

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The Villarrica volcano in Chile on September 2, 2018 (© Cristobal Saavedra Escobar/Reuters)

Celebrating Chile's Independence Day

That's the Villarrica volcano providing fireworks for our observance of Chile's Independence Day celebrations—called Fiestas Patrias—taking place September 18 and 19. The second-most active volcano in South America, Villarrica is known to the indigenous Mapuche people as Rucapillán (Devil's House). This photo was taken on September 2, 2018, alarming nearby residents, but it wasn't nearly as destructive as other relatively recent eruptions, like one in 2015 that prompted authorities to evacuate thousands of people.

Chile's Fiestas Patrias take place each year just before the spring equinox in the Southern Hemisphere, so the Independence Day celebrations double as a kind of spring festival. With most schools and workplaces on a weeklong vacation, people observe the holiday by attending rodeos, going to the beach, visiting family, and—above all—indulging in traditional Chilean food and drink. It's said that Chileans gain 10 pound or more during the Fiestas Patrias. Most gorge themselves on empanadas de pino, which are small pastries filled with minced meat, sautéed onions, hard-boiled egg, olives, and sometimes raisins. The empanadas are typically eaten with a variety of grilled meats from barbecue stands called asados. It's all washed down with local red wine or chicha, which in Chile is a sweet, distilled grape- or apple-based beverage that is almost exclusively drunk during the week of Fiestas Patrias celebrations.

在百内国家公园上空飞翔的智利红鹳,智利 Chilean flamingos in Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile (© Ben Hall/Minden Pictures)

发布于 , 762 次浏览

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舞动的火红音符
智利百内国家公园

天生爱臭美的油腻男
喜欢撩妹 但我很专一

快看,这群智利红鹳正在百内国家公园内的安第斯山脉东部的百内断层上空飞翔。这些高耸的峰下面是智利巴塔哥尼亚沙漠的西部边缘。尽管有“沙漠”的称号,但是位于智利的部分却是拥有众多冰川泊和流的大型流域,这片浅水区是智利红鹳的理想栖息地,它们把靴状的嘴浸入浅水中,过滤掉杂质后就可以吃到美味的浮游生物和藻类了。文/时尚旅游

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