标签 冰岛 下的文章

日出时的羽扇豆田和教堂,斯奈山半岛,冰岛 Lupine fields and church at sunrise, Snæfellsnes Peninsula, Iceland (© Matteo Colombo/Getty Images)

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日出时的羽扇豆田和教堂,斯奈半岛冰岛 Lupine fields and church at sunrise, Snæfellsnes Peninsula, Iceland (© Matteo Colombo/Getty Images)

盛放的夏季 'Lupin' into summer

羽扇豆田和教堂,斯奈山半,冰岛

随着冰岛春夏交替,崎岖的地貌呈现出五彩缤纷的景象。由于羽扇豆的根部具有土壤粘结性,冰岛在20世纪40年代引进了羽扇豆,用于控制水土流失。羽扇豆在含沙和含盐的土壤中生长茂盛,繁殖迅速,给乡村涂上了绚丽的紫色、粉色和蓝色。虽然有些人认为羽扇豆是一种入侵物种,会对本地植物造成威胁,但它深受当地人和游客的喜爱,被视为夏季景观的一大亮点。在雷克雅未克和斯科加福斯瀑布附近等多个地区都能看到羽扇豆花田。这些花儿也盛开在通往斯奈山半岛海利桑杜尔教堂的道路两旁,如今天的图片所示。

斯奈山半岛除了盛开着美丽的羽扇豆花之外,还有丰富而独特的地质地貌。如果你想在一个地方同时体验高耸的火山、广阔的熔岩区、迷人的冰川以及未受破坏的海滩,这里就是你寻找的理想之地。

Lupine fields, Snæfellsnes, Iceland

As spring gives way to summer in Iceland, the rugged landscape bursts into color. Lupines were introduced here in the 1940s for their soil-binding properties, to reduce erosion. The plant flourishes in sandy and salty soils and spreads rapidly, bringing hues of purple, pink, and blue. Although some consider lupine to be a threat to native plants, it is welcomed by many as a cherished part of the summer landscape. You can find lupine fields in Reykjavík, near the Skógafoss waterfall, and lining the road to the Hellissandur Church in the Snæfellsnes Peninsula, as seen in today's image.

钻石冰沙滩,冰岛 Diamond Beach, Iceland (© Rachid Dahnoun/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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钻石沙滩冰岛 Diamond Beach, Iceland (© Rachid Dahnoun/Tandem Stills + Motion)

撒了一地的“钻石” Iced out, literally

钻石冰沙滩,冰

峡湾和熔岩荒原到冰和黑沙滩,就像我们今天在图片中看到的那样,冰岛是一个自然奇观的宝库。钻石冰沙滩是冰岛最受欢迎的自然地标之一。这个独特的沙滩位于杰古沙龙冰附近,其名字源于从冰川上脱落的冰山碎片,当这些冰碎片被冲到岸上后,在黑色沙子上就像一颗颗闪闪发的钻石,而这些黑色沙子则是来自被侵蚀的火山岩。清澈的冰块与黑色的沙子形成鲜明对比,尤其是当阳光照射在冰面上时,会产生一种超现实的景象,因此这里是冰岛南海岸的必游之地。

Diamond Beach, Iceland

From fjords and lava fields to ice caves and black sand beaches, Iceland is a treasure trove of natural wonders. The volcanic black sand of Diamond Beach, pictured in today's image, sparkles with pieces of iceberg washed ashore from the nearby Jökulsárlón glacier lagoon. The contrast between the clear ice and black sand looks particularly surreal when sunlight hits the ice, making it a must-visit destination on Iceland's south coast.

教堂山,斯奈山半岛,冰岛 Kirkjufell, Snæfellsnes peninsula, Iceland (© Ratnakorn Piyasirisorost/Getty Images)

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教堂,斯奈山半岛冰岛 Kirkjufell, Snæfellsnes peninsula, Iceland (© Ratnakorn Piyasirisorost/Getty Images)

与火之地 The land of ice and fire

草帽山,冰

冰川瀑布火山和黑沙滩,冰岛的斯奈山半岛拥有“权游”中的一切。图中这座傲然屹立的小山,是海拔1519英尺高的草帽山。因其形状酷似教堂的尖塔,这座巍峨的小山又被称为教堂山。您可能在《权力的游戏》系列剧中看到过它,因为它曾出现在一幕设定在巨型冰墙以北的场景中。这个冰原岛峰(一种突出于冰原或冰川上的岩层),是摄影师们经常拍摄的对象,其金字塔般的形状、随季节变化的颜色以及沿海的地理位置,使它充满了魅力。如果运气好,天气条件允许,您还可以在草帽山看到壮丽的北极光

Kirkjufell, Iceland

From glaciers and waterfalls to volcanoes and black sand beaches, Iceland's Snæfellsnes peninsula has 'GoT' it all. Pictured here is the 1,519-foot-high Kirkjufell, a hill often called 'Church Mountain,' as it is said to resemble a steeple. In fact, it is a nunatak, a rock formation that protrudes through an ice sheet or glacier. You might recognize it from the 'Game of Thrones' series, where it featured in a scene set north of the colossal ice wall. When it's not starring on TV, it is popular with photographers thanks to its unusual shape, coastal location, and colors that shift with the seasons. And if you're lucky, and the weather conditions align, Kirkjufell offers a magnificent view of the northern lights.

斯科加瀑布,冰岛 Skógafoss waterfall, Iceland (© Maridav/Shutterstock)

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斯科加瀑布冰岛 Skógafoss waterfall, Iceland (© Maridav/Shutterstock)

溅起一潭水 Making a splash

斯科加瀑布,

今天照片里的是冰岛的斯科加瀑布,它是冰岛最大的瀑布之一,有82英尺宽,垂直落差约200英尺。游客经常能在这里看到彩虹,甚至是双彩虹。传说,第一个踏足冰岛的维京人曾把一个宝箱藏在了斯科加瀑布后面,这又为这个瀑布增添了一丝神秘色彩。

这个瀑布在很多热门影视作品中都出现过,比如《雷神:黑暗世界》《慷慨的心》《权力的游戏》等等。瀑布附近还有一个斯科加博物馆,可以让人们了解冰岛的文化遗产。

Skógafoss waterfall, Iceland

Behold Skógafoss, one of Iceland’s largest waterfalls. This powerful cascade measures 82 feet across and drops 200 feet over what were once the sea cliffs of the country’s southern coast. The coastline receded seaward, but the cliffs remained, leaving behind this natural wonder, powered by water from two glaciers. Skógafoss, which translates as 'forest waterfall,' is frequently graced with single or double rainbows, formed by the refraction of sunlight through the mist. Legend has it that a treasure chest is hidden behind Skógafoss, left there by a Viking settler named Prasi Porolfsson.

The waterfall has appeared on the big screen, in 'Thor: The Dark World' and the Bollywood movie 'Dilwale,' as well as on TV in the final season of 'Game of Thrones.' The Skógar Museum, which offers insights into Iceland's cultural heritage, sits near the waterfall in Skógar village.

格林达维克的蓝湖,冰岛 Blue Lagoon, Grindavík, Iceland (© Westend61/Getty Images)

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格林达维克的蓝冰岛 Blue Lagoon, Grindavík, Iceland (© Westend61/Getty Images)

治愈身心的“废水” The healing powers of wastewater

蓝湖水疗,格林达维克,

坦率地说,今天这张美丽图片的来源是附近地热发电厂的废水池。虽然这听起来并不诱人,但冰岛的蓝色泻湖是该国游客最多的景点之一。诀窍是不要陷入废水的“浪费”部分。这里的水是干净的,总是在100°F左右徘徊,富含大量的二氧化硅,这正是由于工厂的工艺,使其变蓝和变硫的原因。这些矿物质和少量藻类被认为是对皮肤和整体健康非常有益的补品。

Blue Lagoon spa, Grindavík, Iceland

Let's be frank here, the origin of today's beautiful picture is a pool of wastewater from a nearby geothermal plant. While that may not sound enticing, Iceland's Blue Lagoon is one of the country's most visited attractions. The trick is to not get stuck on the 'waste' part of wastewater. The water here is clean, always hovers around 100° F, and is enriched with tons of silica—which is what makes it blue—and sulfur thanks to the plant's processes. Those minerals, along with a little algae, are believed to combine into a highly beneficial tonic for skin and overall well-being.

在公路上吃草的绵羊,冰岛 Sheep graze along a road, Iceland (© Matthew Kuhns/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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公路上吃草的绵羊,冰岛 Sheep graze along a road, Iceland (© Matthew Kuhns/Tandem Stills + Motion)

今天人在庆祝什么? What are Icelanders celebrating today?

First day of summer

After long—very long—winter nights, it's not surprising that the First Day of Summer is cause for a big celebration in Iceland. The public holiday falls on the first Thursday after April 18, and launches Harpa, the first summer month of the old Norse calendar that was followed by the country's first inhabitants. The year was split into just two seasons back then—summer and winter—which explains why Sumardagurinn Fyrsti, the First Day of Summer, falls in chilly April. Indeed, folklore has it that if you put a dish of water outside the night before the holiday and it freezes, you'll have a good summer. Regardless of temperature, the holiday does herald the arrival of those famously long days with little darkness, a welcome relief after the light-deprived winter months.

So how do Icelanders celebrate the First Day of Summer? Well, they take part in flag-waving local parades, listen to marching bands, and enjoy outdoor games and sports with family and friends. There's a tradition of giving summer gifts ('sumargjafir'), and those are often connected to outdoor activities—maybe a bike or a soccer ball, or new clothes—to encourage children to play together in the fresh air after the long, frigid winter. And of course, what celebration would be complete without food? The holiday gets people cranking up the barbecue and gathering for 'summer' food, even though the average high temperature in April is in the 40s. Getting cold watching a parade? Icelandic crepes with thick cream and jam inside will warm you up. Feeling chilly but you're determined to think 'summer'? Join the hardy Icelanders who make ice cream a First Day of Summer must-have.

初夏

在漫长的夜之后,不足为奇的是,夏天的第一天是冰岛举行盛大庆祝活动的原因。公共假日在4月18日之后的第一个星期四,并推出了哈帕,这是古挪威历法中的第一个夏季月份,随后是该国的第一批居民。这一年分为两个季节,分别是夏季和冬季,这也解释了为什么Sumardagurinn Fyrsti,夏季的第一天,会在寒冷的四月降临。事实上,民间传说,如果你在假期前一天晚上把一盘水放在外面,水结冰了,你就会有一个美好的夏天。不管气温如何,这个节日确实预示着那些以漫长而黑暗少著称的日子的到来,在线不足的冬季几个月后,这是一种受欢迎的解脱。

那么冰岛人如何庆祝夏天的第一天呢?嗯,他们参加挥舞国旗的地方游行,听游行乐队,和家人朋友一起享受户外游戏和运动。有一种传统是赠送夏季礼物(“sumargjafir”),这些礼物通常与户外活动有关,比如自行车或足球,或者新衣服,以鼓励孩子们在漫长寒冷的冬天后在新鲜空气中一起玩耍。当然,没有食物,什么样的庆祝活动才算完整?尽管4月的平均高温在40多度,但这个节日还是会让人们开始烧烤,并聚在一起吃“夏季”食物。看游行会感冒吗?冰岛薄饼里面有厚厚的奶油和果酱会让你暖和起来。感觉很冷,但你决定去想“夏天”?加入坚韧不拔的冰岛人的行列吧,他们把冰淇淋作为夏季的第一天必备品。

北极光下的众神瀑布,冰岛 Goðafoss waterfall under the northern lights, Iceland (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

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北极光下的众神瀑布冰岛 Goðafoss waterfall under the northern lights, Iceland (© Anton Petrus/Getty Images)

之地 Land of fire and ice

Goðafoss waterfall, Iceland

Goðafoss is one of the hundreds of show-stopping waterfalls Iceland is blessed with. And though it isn't the island's highest waterfall—that would be Morsarfoss at over 240 meters—or most powerful (the thundering Dettifoss), Goðafoss, has, within its swirling waters, its own story to tell.

An Icelandic legend holds that in 1000 CE, a well-respected pagan priest and chieftain named Thorgeir Thorkelsson was tasked with deciding if Iceland was to become a Christian nation or if it would continue to worship the ancient Nordic gods. The peace of the island was at stake, with fierce advocates on each side. Thorgeir decided in favor of Christianity, but with the caveat that those who chose to continue to recognize the old gods would not be punished so long as they converted. This tale, likely created in the nineteenth century, says that after Thorgeir converted to Christianity he returned to his home near Goðafoss and hurled his statues of the Norse gods into the falls, which is said to have angered the old gods so much that they split the waterfall in two. Which might be enough to make one rethink angering them in the first place.

Goðafoss瀑布,冰

Goðafoss是冰岛拥有的数百座停止表演的瀑布之一。尽管它不是岛上最高的瀑布,也不是海拔240米以上的穆萨福斯瀑布,也不是最强大的瀑布(雷鸣般的Dettifoss),但Goðafoss在其漩涡中有自己的故事要讲。

冰岛的一个传说认为,公元1000年,一位受人尊敬的异教徒牧师和酋长托尔盖尔·托克尔松(Thorgeir Thorkelsson)受命决定冰岛是要成为一个基督教国家,还是要继续崇拜古代北欧诸神。岛上的和平岌岌可危,双方都有强烈的支持者。索盖尔决定支持基督教,但有一条警告:那些选择继续承认旧神的人,只要他们皈依,就不会受到惩罚。这个故事可能是在19世纪创作的,故事中说,托尔盖尔皈依基督教后回到他在戈阿福斯附近的家中,将他的北欧诸神雕像扔进瀑布,据说这激怒了古神,以至于他们将瀑布一分为二。这可能足以让人重新思考一开始会激怒他们。

冰川洞穴里流动的河流,冰岛瓦特纳冰原 Flowing river inside a glacier cave, Vatnajökull, Iceland (© Marco Bottigelli/Getty Images)

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冰川洞穴里流动的河流冰岛瓦特纳冰原 Flowing river inside a glacier cave, Vatnajökull, Iceland (© Marco Bottigelli/Getty Images)

,冰,正在坍塌 Ice, ice, caving

Glacier cave in Iceland

The land of fire and ice is home to countless natural wonders, like these brilliant blue caves formed within the ice of a glacier. (Glacier caves are often called ice caves, but the latter term is properly used to describe bedrock caves that contain year-round ice.) The majority of these glacier caves are on the southeastern edge of Iceland in Vatnajökull glacier, which covers about 8% of the island nation and is one of the largest glaciers in Europe.

Vatnajökull's caves, formed by the flowing rivers underneath the glacier, are famous for their blue corridors and eerie atmosphere. The caves are only accessible from November until March when temperatures are cold enough to strengthen the ice. The caves vary in size and shape each year, so enjoy the beauty of this one while you can, because it may not be around next winter.

冰川

这片冰之地拥有无数自然奇观,比如这些在冰川冰中形成的明亮的蓝色洞穴。(冰川洞穴通常被称为冰洞,但后一个术语被恰当地用来描述含有全年冰的基岩洞穴。)这些冰川洞穴大多位于冰岛东南边缘的瓦特纳库尔冰川(Vatnajökull glacier),该冰川覆盖了该岛国约8%的面积,是欧洲最大的冰川之一。

Vatnajökull的洞穴由冰川下流动的流形成,以其蓝色的走廊和怪异的氛围而闻名。这些洞穴只有在11月至3月期间才能到达,那时的温度足够冷,足以强化冰。这些洞穴每年都有不同的大小和形状,所以尽可能地欣赏这座洞穴的美丽,因为它可能不会在明年冬天出现。

跨年夜的篝火晚会,冰岛雷克雅未克 Bonfire to celebrate New Year's Eve in 2014 in Reykjavik, Iceland (© Ragnar Th Sigurdsson/Alamy)

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跨年夜的篝火晚会,冰岛雷克雅未克 Bonfire to celebrate New Year's Eve in 2014 in Reykjavik, Iceland (© Ragnar Th Sigurdsson/Alamy)

New Year's Eve

The 'land of fire and ice' earns its nickname from the unique landscape of volcanoes and glaciers here, but Iceland's white-hot celebrations in the dead of the Nordic midwinter also evoke the phrase. The tradition of New Year's Eve bonfires in Iceland is said to date from the 18th century, when a group of schoolboys heralded the new year by scrounging up and torching a huge pile of wood scraps. The unruly teenagers' celebration sparked the general public's interest, and annual fires—like this one in Reykjavik—became an internationally noted tradition for Icelanders. Huddle up to the fire and raise a toasty-warm toast to the new year!

除夕

“火与之地”得名于这里独特的火山冰川景观,但冰在北欧仲之夜举行的白热化庆祝活动也唤起了这句话。据说,冰岛的除夕篝火传统可以追溯到18世纪,当时一群小学生捡起并焚烧一大堆木屑来庆祝新年。不守规矩的青少年庆祝活动激发了公众的兴趣,每年雷克雅未克这样的火灾成为冰岛人的国际著名传统。蜷缩在炉火旁,为新年干杯!

冰岛北部内陆景观中的Aldeyjarfoss瀑布 Aldeyjarfoss waterfall in northern Iceland's interior landscape (© Jim Patterson/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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冰岛北部内陆景观中的Aldeyjarfoss瀑布 Aldeyjarfoss waterfall in northern Iceland's interior landscape (© Jim Patterson/Tandem Stills + Motion)

Behold the mighty Aldeyjarfoss

In waterfall-dense Iceland, it says something that Aldeyjarfoss is considered one of the most beautiful sights in the country. Fed by Iceland's largest ice cap, the 65-foot falls are flanked by distinctive hexagon-shaped basalt columns seemingly carved by some Norse god.

Okay, they may not have their origins with Odin's kin. Geologists will tell us that they're formed as lava flows cool and buckle under stress, with cracks penetrating deep into newly formed rock. The path of least resistance places these cracks at 120-degree intersections. So as cracks run deeper, their shape averages out to a near-perfect hexagon—exposing neatly geometric columns when the rock face eventually shears off.

看看强大的阿尔迪亚福斯

在瀑布密布的,阿尔迪亚尔福斯被认为是该国最美丽的景点之一。由冰岛最大的冰盖支撑,65英尺高的瀑布两侧是独特的六边形玄武岩柱,似乎是由一些挪威雕刻而成。

好吧,他们可能不是奥丁的亲戚。地质学家会告诉我们,它们是在熔岩流冷却并在应力作用下弯曲时形成的,裂缝深入新形成的岩石。阻力最小的路径将这些裂缝放置在120度交叉处。因此,当裂缝越深,当岩石表面最终剪切时,它们的形状平均为接近完美的六边形,露出整齐的几何柱。