2022年9月

在新湾潜水的南露脊鲸,阿根廷瓦尔德斯半岛 Southern right whale diving in the Golfo Nuevo near the Valdes Peninsula, Argentina (© Gabriel Rojo/Minden Pictures)

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在新潜水的南露脊阿根廷瓦尔德斯半岛 Southern right whale diving in the Golfo Nuevo near the Valdes Peninsula, Argentina (© Gabriel Rojo/Minden Pictures)

洋里的巨鲸 Giants of the Southern Ocean

Southern right whale

The end of September in the Southern Hemisphere means warming weather and the nearing of summer. For southern right whales like this one off the coast of Argentina, this means a transit southward toward Antarctica and rich feeding grounds. Southern right whales are a subspecies of right whale that inhabit the oceans below the equator. They feed on krill at the surface of the water, holding their mouths open as they swim through clouds of the tiny crustaceans.

Right whales got their names because they were the 'right' whale to hunt, desirable to whalers because they were relatively slow and floated when they died. Right whales are easily identifiable by the thick white calluses on their heads. They tend to be social and curious creatures and have been known to have close encounters with humans. They spend winters in warmer waters closer to the equator. The whale featured today surfaced off the Valdes Peninsula, home to the largest breeding population in the world, and a fitting location for the Southern Whale Natural Monument, created in 1984. In these protected waters, thousands of whales will mate and give birth, staying until October or November, when they will begin their great migration south.

南露脊鲸

南半球的9月底意味着气候变暖和夏季临近。对于阿根廷海岸外的这种南露脊鲸来说,这意味着向南迁移到南极洲和丰富的觅食地。南方露脊鲸是露脊鲸的一个亚种,栖息在赤道以下的海洋中。它们以水面上的磷虾为食,在穿过微小甲壳动物层时张大嘴巴。

露脊鲸之所以得名,是因为它们是捕鲸的“正确”鲸鱼,捕鲸者之所以喜欢露脊鲸,是因为露脊鲸的速度相对较慢,死后会浮在水面上。露脊鲸头上厚厚的白色胼胝很容易辨认出来。它们往往是社会性和好奇的动物,并且已知与人类有密切接触。它们在靠近赤道的温暖水域过。今天,这头鲸鱼在巴尔德斯半浮出水面,这里是世界上最大的繁殖种群所在地,也是1984年建立的南方鲸鱼自然纪念碑的合适地点。在这些受保护的水域中,数千头鲸鱼将交配并产子,一直呆到10月或11月,届时它们将开始大规模向南迁徙。

卡伯特镇的福斯特廊桥,美国佛蒙特州 Foster Covered Bridge in Cabot, Vermont (© Alan Majchrowicz/Getty Images)

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卡伯特镇的福斯特廊桥美国佛蒙特州 Foster Covered Bridge in Cabot, Vermont (© Alan Majchrowicz/Getty Images)

一场现代化的重建 A modern recreation

The A.M. Foster covered bridge in Cabot, Vermont

At one point in history, the United States had upwards of 14,000 wooden covered bridges. Most of them were built between 1825 and 1875 to cross a stream or river and were intended to withstand the elements. An uncovered wooden bridge may have a lifespan of only about 20 years while a covered bridge could stand for more than a 100. Even still, they don't fare well without upkeep and restoration costs can be high. Iron replaced wood as the preferred and cheaper bridge-building material in the mid-1800s. These days, fewer than 900 of the original wooden covered bridges are believed to still be standing. Vermont currently has 104 of them, the highest density of remaining covered bridges in the country. The Alonzo Merrill Foster covered bridge seen in today's photo can be found in Cabot, Vermont.

The A.M. Foster bridge, named after the inventor of a type of maple spout, is located on Spaulding Farm. Don't be deceived, the Foster bridge is actually a 1990s replica of a 'farm bridge' that was built in 1890 known as the Orton Bridge. Despite being a replica, the Foster bridge was authentically constructed by hand, in collaboration with Foster's great-grandson, with spruce lumber and salvaged granite. Spanning 45 feet across a man-made pond and literally bridging the gap between two farms, it took less than 6 weeks to complete. Unfortunately, it was found to be too narrow for modern farm equipment, a miscalculation that its constructors found amusing. Still, it works well as a photo opportunity and frequent venue for weddings.

佛蒙特州卡博特的福斯特廊

在历史上的某个时期,美国有超过14000座木桥。这些建筑大多建于1825年至1875年之间,用于跨越溪流或河流,旨在抵御恶劣天气。一座无遮盖的木桥可能只有大约20年的寿命,而一座有遮盖的桥可以支撑100多年。即使如此,如果没有维护,它们也不会很好,修复成本可能很高。19世纪中叶,铁取代木材成为首选且更便宜的桥梁建筑材料。这些天来,据信只有不到900座原始的木制覆盖桥梁仍然屹立着。佛蒙特州目前有104座桥,是该国剩余有盖桥梁密度最高的一座。今天照片中的阿隆佐-梅里尔-福斯特(Alonzo Merrill Foster)桥位于佛蒙特州的卡伯特(Cabot)。

A.M.Foster桥位于斯波尔丁农场,以一种枫喷口的发明者命名。别被骗了,福斯特桥实际上是一座建于1890年的“农场桥”的90年代复制品,被称为奥尔顿桥。尽管是一座复制品,但福斯特桥确实是与福斯特的曾孙合作,用杉木材和回收的岗岩手工建造的。它横跨一个45英尺长的人工池塘,实际上弥补了两个农场之间的差距,不到6周就完成了。不幸的是,对于现代农业设备来说,它太窄了,这是一个让建造者感到有趣的错误计算。尽管如此,作为一个拍照机会和频繁举行婚礼的场所,它仍然很管用。

黄石国家公园里的上间歇泉盆地,美国怀俄明州 Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (© Ray Urner/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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黄石国家公园里的上间歇泉盆地美国怀俄明州 Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (© Ray Urner/Tandem Stills + Motion)

水与火相遇的地方 Where fire and water meet

Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

The highest concentration of geysers and hydrothermal springs in the world are located here in this corner of Yellowstone National Park, called the Upper Geyser Basin. They include what is perhaps the most famous geyser of them all: Old Faithful. But the Upper Basin contains many other geysers as well, including the tallest predictable geyser (Grand Geyser) and the most voluminous geyser (Giant Geyser). Yellowstone contains about 300 geysers, about two-thirds the number in the entire world.

Geysers are essentially a rare form of hot spring—a water-filled tube that extends thousands of feet into the Earth's crust, so deep it makes contact with molten rock called magma. The water in the tube boils and under extreme pressure ejects the water column into the air, emptying the tube. After some time, more groundwater seeps into the tube, filling it, and starting the process over again. That's why geysers erupt at somewhat regular intervals. The bigger the tube, the more water, and the longer the eruption. Yellowstone is one of the few places in the world where you can safely walk among so many geysers and superheated springs, and view them close up. Trails and boardwalks guide the way, making the Upper Geyser Basin one of the star attractions of this famous national park.

黄石国家公园上间歇盆地

世界上最密集的间歇泉和热泉位于黄石国家公园的这个角落,被称为上间歇泉盆地。其中最著名的喷泉可能是:老忠实喷泉。但上盆地也有许多其他间歇泉,包括最高的可预测间歇泉(大间歇泉)和最大的间歇泉(巨型间歇泉)。黄石公园有大约300个间歇泉,大约是全世界的三分之二。

间歇泉本质上是一种罕见的温泉,它是一种充满水的管子,伸入地壳数千英尺深,与称为岩浆的熔融岩石接触。管子中的水沸腾,在极端压力下将水柱喷射到空气中,排空管子。一段时间后,更多的地下水渗入管道,将其充满,然后重新开始这一过程。这就是间歇泉每隔一定时间喷发的原因。管子越大,水越多,喷发时间越长。黄石公园是世界上为数不多的几个可以在众多间歇泉和过热泉水之间安全漫步并近距离观看的地方之一。小径和木板人行道指引着道路,使上间歇泉盆地成为这个著名国家公园的明星景点之一。

两头穿越苏西特纳河的驯鹿,美国阿拉斯加 Caribou crossing the Susitna River during the autumn rut, Alaska (© Tim Plowden/Alamy)

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两头穿越苏西特纳驯鹿美国阿拉斯加 Caribou crossing the Susitna River during the autumn rut, Alaska (© Tim Plowden/Alamy)

令人印象深刻的时刻 Time to make an impression

Caribou rutting season in Alaska

It's that time of year when Alaskan caribou are beginning to feel a little frisky. From late September until early November, males will be strutting their stuff, locking antlers with one another, and competing for the attention of females in hopes of furthering the species. Successful males will mate with 15-20 females a season. After the rutting season males will shed their antlers while females keep theirs until spring. In today's photo we're looking at some caribou in southcentral Alaska crossing the Susitna River.

Alaska has 32 distinct caribou herds. It's likely today's caribou are members of the Nelchina herd, which roams across about 20,000 square miles in the high basin surrounded by the Talkeetna, Chugach, Wrangell, and Alaska ranges. The Nelchina herd is among the most studied and recognized of Alaskan caribou partly because their range is relatively close to the major human population centers of the state. The herd has provided food for Alaskans for hundreds of years and its population is maintained through carefully monitored hunting regulations. But caribou populations can fluctuate from one year to the next depending on the availability of food and severity of the weather.

阿拉斯加驯鹿发情季节

每年的这个时候,阿拉斯加驯鹿开始感到有点活泼。从9月下旬到11月初,雄性将昂首阔步,相互锁住鹿角,争夺雌性的注意力,以期进一步丰富物种。成功的雄性每季度将与15-20只雌性交配。发情期过后,雄性会脱掉鹿角,而雌性会一直保留到春天。在今天的照片中,我们看到一些驯鹿在阿拉斯加中南部穿越苏西特纳河。

阿拉斯加有32个不同的驯鹿群。今天的北美驯鹿很可能是Nelchina鹿群的成员,它们在塔基特纳山脉、楚加赫脉、朗格尔山脉和阿拉斯加山脉环绕的高盆地中漫游,占地约20000平方英里。Nelchina驯鹿群是阿拉斯加驯鹿中研究和认识最多的驯鹿群之一,部分原因是它们的分布范围相对接近该州的主要人口中心。数百年来,牧群一直为阿拉斯加人提供食物,通过仔细监测狩猎法规来维持种群数量。但是驯鹿的数量可能会随着食物的供应和天气的恶劣程度而在一年到另一年之间波动。

亚马逊河鸟瞰图,巴西 Aerial view of the Amazon River in Brazil (© Curioso.Photography/Shutterstock)

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亚马逊鸟瞰图,巴西 Aerial view of the Amazon River in Brazil (© Curioso.Photography/Shutterstock)

匆匆而逝的河流 The rivers run through us

World Rivers Day

On World Rivers Day, we honor what may be thought of as the queen of them all—the Amazon, which flows more than 4,000 miles mostly through the South American countries of Peru and Brazil. The Amazon discharges a whopping 58 million gallons of fresh water into the ocean every second, enough to fill 83 Olympic-sized swimming pools, far more water than any other river in the world. It accounts for 20% of all fresh water that flows into the world's seas and oceans. It's also the vital heart of the largest and most diverse rain forest in the world—the Amazon Rain Forest is home to a third of the world's animal species and its trees and plants pull billions of tons of heat-trapping carbon dioxide from the atmosphere each year, making it one of the Earth's best defenses against climate change.

Mark Angelo, a river conservationist from British Columbia, launched World Rivers Day in 2005 to recognize the importance of rivers to the survival of humanity and millions of species all over the world. Rivers are our best source of fresh water, they can be an important energy source, they're the foundations of complex ecosystems, and provide crucial sources of irrigation for our crops, among other contributions to our way of life. Besides, who doesn't love a float down a lazy river?

世界河流日

在世界河流日,我们向可能被认为是所有河流中的女王的亚马逊河致敬,该河流经4000多英里,主要流经南美国秘鲁和巴西。亚马逊河每秒向海洋排放5800万加仑的淡水,足以填满83个奥运会规模的游泳池,远远超过世界上任何其他河流。它占流入世界海洋的所有淡水的20%。亚马逊雨林是世界上最大、种类最多的雨林的重要心脏,是世界三分之一动物物种的家园,其木和植物每年从大气中吸收数十亿吨的吸热二氧化碳,使其成为地球抵御气候变化的最佳防御措施之一。

来自不列颠哥伦比亚省的河流保护主义者马克·安吉洛(Mark Angelo)于2005年发起了世界河流日活动,以认识到河流对全世界人类和数百万物种生存的重要性。河流是我们最好的淡水来源,它们可以是重要的能源,是复杂生态系统的基础,为我们的作物提供重要的灌溉资源,以及对我们生活方式的其他贡献。此外,谁不喜欢沿着懒惰的河流漂流?

阿卡迪亚国家公园上空的银河系,美国缅因州 Milky Way over Acadia National Park, Maine (© Harry Collins/Getty Images)

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阿卡迪亚国家公园上空的银河系,美国缅因州 Milky Way over Acadia National Park, Maine (© Harry Collins/Getty Images)

繁星闪烁的夜晚 Starry, starry night

Acadia National Park, Maine

This striking photo lets us showcase two noteworthy events in one day, at no extra charge. (You’re welcome.) National Public Lands Day is observed on the fourth Saturday in September, and today’s also part of the Acadia Night Sky Festival, which celebrates the starlit skies over Maine’s gem of a national park.

It’s easy to take our national parks for granted. We certainly appreciate them and enjoy visiting, but today’s commemoration reminds us that they also need our help. National Public Lands Day turns the spotlight on parks and other public lands, inviting everyone to explore but also to volunteer to plant trees, work on trail-maintenance projects, and more. As a bonus: Admission is free today at national parks, monuments, and other participating federal sites.

Acadia is one of the smallest of the nation's 63 national parks, though it attracts an impressive 3 million visitors a year. Aside from its natural beauty, Acadia has some of the most spectacular star-filled night skies in the eastern United States. The natural darkness is protected, with restrictions on outdoor lighting in the park and surrounding areas. The Acadia Night Sky Festival, which started on September 21 and continues through tomorrow, celebrates the natural darkness and the celestial star show. A favorite way to mark the occasion is by kayaking in Castine's harbor, where bioluminescent phytoplankton illuminate the water with a swirling, unearthly glow. With sparkling waters below and out-of-this-world stargazing above, it's been called Acadia's 'Floating Planetarium.'

缅因州阿卡迪亚国家公园

这张引人注目的照片让我们可以在一天内免费展示两件值得关注的事件。(不客气。)9月的第四个星期六是国家公共土地日,今天也是阿卡迪亚夜空节的一部分,庆祝缅因州国家公园瑰宝上星灿烂的天空。

我们很容易把国家公园视为理所当然。我们当然很感激他们,也很喜欢参观,但今天的纪念活动提醒我们,他们也需要我们的帮助。国家公共土地日将聚光灯转向公园和其他公共土地,邀请每个人探索,也自愿植,从事小径维护项目等。作为奖励:国家公园、纪念碑和其他参与的联邦网站今天免费入场。

阿卡迪亚是美国63个国家公园中最小的一个,尽管每年吸引了300万游客。除了它的自然美景,阿卡迪亚还有一些美国东部最壮观的充满星星的夜空。自然黑暗受到保护,公园和周边地区的室外照明受到限制。阿卡迪亚夜空节于9月21日开始,持续到明天,庆祝自然的黑暗和天上的星星表演。最受欢迎的庆祝方式是在卡斯廷独木舟,在那里,生物发光的浮游植物以漩涡般的、超自然的光芒照亮水面。它的下面和外面都是波光粼粼的海水,俯瞰着天空,被称为阿卡迪亚的“浮动天文馆”。

最后一美元公路旁的白杨树,科罗拉多州特鲁莱德市附近 The aspen canopy along Last Dollar Road near Telluride, Colorado (© Grant Ordelheide/Tandem Stills + Motion)

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最后一美元公路旁的白杨科罗拉多州特鲁莱德市附近 The aspen canopy along Last Dollar Road near Telluride, Colorado (© Grant Ordelheide/Tandem Stills + Motion)

属于秋天的色彩 Fall colors

Autumnal equinox

This thicket of aspen trees is on the Last Dollar Road, an 18-mile scenic drive in southwest Colorado that is as dramatic as its name suggests, with switchbacks and stunning views of peaks and meadows and of course the aspen trees that paint the land come September. Aspens thrive in the cold winters and cool summers of Colorado, where they grow at altitudes between 5,000 to 11,000 feet, typically reaching heights of 50 feet. Their distinct, round leaves quake in the wind making it appear as if the trees are glittering in the sunlight. Aspens generally grow on west-facing slopes, gorging on the afternoon sun. They're among the world's largest living organisms because aspen groves share a single root system. They're also the state's only native deciduous tree and cover about a fifth of its forested land.

秋分

这片白杨树灌木丛位于科罗拉多州西南部的Last Dollar Road,这是一条18英里长的风景线,正如它的名字所暗示的那样引人注目,在这里可以看到山峰和草地的转弯和令人叹为观止的美景,当然,到了9月份,白杨树也将为这片土地锦上添。白杨在科罗拉多州的寒冷季和凉爽夏季生长旺盛,在那里它们生长在5000至11000英尺的高度,通常达到50英尺的高度。它们独特的圆形叶子在风中摇曳,使树木在阳下显得闪闪发光。白杨通常生长在向西的斜坡上,饱食午后的阳光。它们是世界上最大的生物之一,因为白杨树林共享一个单一的根系。它们也是该州唯一的本土落叶树,约占该州林地的五分之一。

春角礁灯塔,缅因州南波特兰 Spring Point Ledge Light in South Portland, Maine (© Haizhan Zheng/Getty Images)

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春角礁灯塔缅因州南波特兰 Spring Point Ledge Light in South Portland, Maine (© Haizhan Zheng/Getty Images)

一个小而强大的守护者 A small but mighty guardian

Spring Point Ledge Light

Spring Point Ledge Light warns boats approaching Portland Harbor of the hazardous ledge that it's named for. This underwater ridge reaches out into the shipping channel and was the cause of many shipwrecks in the late 19th century when the harbor was one of the busiest on the entire east coast. Built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Spring Point Ledge Light has been a reliable guardian of Casco Bay and Portland Harbor since 1897. The brick and cast-iron lighthouse earned its spot on the National Historic Register in 1988. In May 2022, people celebrated the 125th anniversary of the first time the lamp was lit, back when it guided schooners and hulking steamships safely to shore.

春角礁灯塔

春角礁灯塔警告驶向波特兰只注意以其命名的危险岩架。这个水下海脊伸入航道,是19世纪末许多船只失事的原因,当时该港是整个东海岸最繁忙的港口之一。由美国陆军工程兵团建造的春角礁灯塔自1897年以来一直是卡斯科和波特兰港的可靠守护者。1988年,这座砖石结构的灯塔被列入国家历史名录。2022年5月,人们庆祝了该灯首次点亮125周年,当它引导帆船和笨重的轮船安全靠岸时。